What is virus and what scientists it is grown?

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2020-01-31 13:40:30

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What is virus and what scientists it is grown?

it is Better to work with viruses in a suit.

I must say that in this article we will once again focus on the now raging coronavirus in China. Better we will talk about what this beast is and how to deal with it. The fact that society . Many people think that some means of control/prevention is effective, but the reality is otherwise. In the end, the virus is not treated, a person becomes worse. This happens very often. So, let's try to dispel some of the myths. Especially about the prevention of diseases associated with viruses and viruses.

First, let's define what actually a virus, how it looks, where did this name and what he was actually dangerous to humans. This is especially true in the modern world in which we move just with insane speeds. After all, only 150 years ago, to be on the other end of the Earth, it was necessary to spend at least a few months, but 600 years ago it was even unclear whether there is something beyond the horizon.

In those days, if an epidemic was extinct village or a small town, but no more. Now the virus easily spreads all over the world. No wonder that many of the militants and thrillers describe exactly such a plot in which the villain infects the plane with people with the virus which has an incubation period of several days. In the end, one must infect all around. How fantastic would not look this story before, now it has ceased to be so incredible.

What is a virus

So! What is the virus itself? There are many definitions, among which the main are the following:

In addition to viruses that affect complex organisms, there are viruses that attack bacteria. They are called bacteriophages. In some cases, they can even be used for medical purposes. Such work is also underway.

About how it works bacteriophage.

Also found viruses that can only replicate (viruses-satellites). In this case, as a native speaker, people may not even know it.

Opens the virus and runs their study of science called Virology, which is the section of Microbiology. The first discovery in this area were made in 1892.

This time it was opened more than six thousand kinds of viruses. However, it is believed that there are more than one hundred thousand types. New, or rather well-forgotten old, viruses are found even in the permafrost during the sampling of ice at a great depth.

Viruses are discovered almost every ecosystem. At the same time, it is likely that the others just weren't looking. By itself, the immune system of humans and animals are quite active against many kinds of viruses. In this case antibodies, when re-ingested. However, this does not always work with the mutated forms of the same virus. Initially, some viruses can evade the immune system. For example, some types of herpes and HIV.

Relatively effectively with the virus can fight specific antiviral drugs. It should be remembered that during a viral illness antibiotics will make it worse.

virus History

Above I talked about the fact that there are viruses, which help to fight bacteria. This makes some types of viruses are a potential means of combating diseases like typhoid and cholera. Similar experiments were conducted, including the English bacteriologist Frederick Tourcom in the early twentieth century, who opened the properties of such viruses. It is interesting that at the time these studies lost meaning due to the fact that it was invented penicillin who successfully fought against many pathogens.

the Danger of viruses cannot be underestimated. Some of them are fatal.

An Interesting feature of the virus that was discovered in the nineteenth century, was that for survival and reproduction, he needs a living organism. Later scientists were able to grow viruses for vaccine production to lymph, of a suspension of chicken kidney or fragments of corneal tissue of Guinea pigs. These viruses were grown to make the vaccine. Similar studies made so far.

The First experiment on the tissues of the human embryo held in 1949, John Franklin Enders, Thomas Weller and Frederick Robbins. They got the polio virus, not first grown on animal tissues or eggs. Later it gave the opportunity to the Jonas Salk to create an effective vaccine against polio (the polio vaccine).

In the early days of viruses, many scientists thought that viruses are liquids, as they cannot be seen with a microscope. Was of the opinion that it is a particle, just a very small, but to prove it was difficult. It was proven only with the advent of electron microscopes. Then was obtained the first images of viruses, which allowed many to learn about their structure.

Actually, the Golden ageVirology was the second half of the twentieth century. At this time only about 2000 kinds of viruses and what they mean, but also invented the vaccine for many of them. However, many viruses still cannot be defeated. In particular the retrovirus and the most famous representative of them HIV isolated in 1983 by a group of scientists led by Luc Montagnier at the Pasteur Institute in France.

Contribution of viruses to the study of evolution

The words of the eminent biologist of the last century, Theodosius Dobzhansky: "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." Against viruses this saying holds true, more than anywhere else. The explanation for this seems a little convoluted, but I'll try to give it shorter.

In this chain it is possible to find traces of viruses.

Hundreds, thousands and millions of years ago, living organisms are also exposed to viruses. Except that this contributed to natural selection were allowed to “clean up” the population and helped living organisms to develop, it left an imprint, which now allows the study of the origin of species and evolutionary chain sequences.

The fact that the viruses which have entered the body of the ancient animal could kill them. If they were not killed, remained in organisms in the form of a safe virus that has lost its properties. He became something of a soldier in retirement. If these retroviruses have been found in the reproductive system, they could be transmitted to new generations and to change their DNA. Thus, they do not just fall into the body, but wandered through his descendants over millions of years.

When mankind has been able to decode DNA, it was found that such traces, regardless of the type of living organism, were in the same place. Eventually this led to the fact that finding a link between animals on this basis, we can conclude that these animals had a common ancestor. The probability of a random match such a record in the DNA is negligible. So much so that it can be ignored.

Thus, scientists, biologists got another way to prove the existence of evolution and common descent of species. As they say, “how did not expect”.

The threat of relic viruses

In this case, such “viral information” is not safe, as there is a mechanism of reverse transcription, which opened in 1970, two American scientists Howard Temin and David Baltimore. Through this mechanism, viruses can be returned in mutated form, perhaps even in the form of a super virus that will cause a global epidemic. The virus seems to be saying: “This is not my war”. Then still takes a gun and goes to war.

View virus that resigned, but he was told that he should return.

Often this “rebellion” is produced by a certain cooperation of the viruses. Previously, it was considered impossible, but now it is proven otherwise. Real virus enters the body, the relic and virus contained in the DNA, for example, supplies its protein structures.

It is due to the presence in the DNA of living organisms relic viruses, many scientists strongly oppose transplanting organs from animals to humans. This combination of tissues may contribute to the emergence of superbugs that defeat would be impossible.

Where did the virus

Many people wonder, where did the viruses, that is how they came and where they went. This question has no clear opinion, but there are three main hypotheses.

The First hypothesis is called regressive (also called the hypothesis of reduction or degeneration). According to her first, there were small cells that parasitized larger living organisms. Later, these lost functions that are not needed for parasitic lifestyle. Proof of this hypothesis is the existence of Rickettsia and chlamydia. They are in fact bacteria but act like viruses that multiply only inside a living cell with its protein structures.

The Second hypothesis is called the hypothesis of a cellular origin. According to her the virus out of the genome of a larger organism. Without going into details, in DNA molecules that can move from cell to cell or inside the genome. It's the molecule that could mutate and stand out in what has become a virus.

take a Look, maybe there's a virus.

The Third hypothesis is that viruses appeared at the dawn of its existence, that is, roughly contemporaneous with the origin of cellular life. Nevertheless, this theory tend to many researchers. Although, the debate continues and so far a clear answer to the question of where this virus came from, yet.

Viral life form

As mentioned above, the virus cannot survive outside the cells of a living organism, as it does not have its own metabolism. For the synthesis of molecules he needs a host cell. Away cells the virus behaves as a particle of the biopolymer and shows no signs of a living being.

While the virus is outside the cell, it exists in the form . The size of this particle is so small that to see in a simple light microscope the majority of viruses simply impossible. Its size about 100 times smaller than bacteria, and the shape varies from simple helical to more complex structures. One of their forms like a crown. It is the coronavirus.

Some scientists call the virus organisms on the vergeliving. On the one hand, they are not alive, but on the other, can multiply, evolve, and maintain a functioning, albeit at the expense of external power protein structures of the host cell.

The basis of the life cycle of the virus is only a few steps. The first is called pinning. At this stage, connections are made between proteins of the viral capsid and the surface of the host cell. Sometimes viruses interact only with certain cells, as, for example, HIV with leucocytes.

The second stage is the penetration into the host cell. Then the virus is released from its capsid. Simply put, he comes out of his shell and starts its genome into the cell. Method the release from the capsid is different. The shell can be dissolved by the enzymes of the virus itself or by elements within the cell.

After that the virus replicates (reproduces), synthesizing the early genes of the virus. Next he's going to structure and the last stage leaves the cell after its death. Often, this occurs due to rupture of the cell membrane.

Thus the virus enters the cell and releases its genome.

Many viruses do not cause the destruction of cells until a certain time does not manifest itself. They can exist within the cells, causing chronic disease. Examples of such viruses can be herpes, which manifests itself , or the human papillomavirus, which in some cases can lead to the development of cancer. Another example of such viruses is the virus Epstein Barra. It causes accelerated cell division, but no signs of malignancy.

the largest epidemics

Viruses can cause disease in some people or animals, and epidemics. In the history there were several major epidemics that have claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. By the way, according to some, designed from the “Old world” viruses killed up to 70 percent of the indigenous population of America after its opening. This is a symptom of a pandemic that should not be confused with a pestilence.

The Most famous epidemic is one that was caused by Spanish flu in 1918-1919. It was caused by a very aggressive form of influenza A. unlike ordinary flu, which is dangerous, primarily, for the weaker people (the elderly, children, people with chronic diseases), the Spanish flu carried a healthy middle-aged people. Just died according to various estimates, from 50 million to 100 million people. That is about 5 percent of the population of the Earth at that time.

it looked like improvised hospitals times «Spanish».

According to definitions and figures, HIV can be considered the real pandemic, so as of now according to various estimates, contaminated our planet almost 40 million people. It is this virus since the first of the disease in 1981 to the present day, died so many people that this virus can be considered the most deadly in the entire history of mankind. Thus, it is believed that this virus appeared in the course of the twentieth century in Africa South of the Sahara. It probably originated from one of relic viruses, of which I spoke above.

, which at the time of writing infected nearly 8,000 people, of which 170 died. Not the greatest performance, if you look at history, but if it does not get localized, do not know what it can result. I will remind, the first cases were identified among visitors to the city market in Wuhan. On the market sold rare animals. Perhaps they were the source of the virus.

How to treat virus? How to protect yourself from the virus?

First and foremost, it should be understood that in most cases the virus enters the body through the respiratory system, that is respiratory. In this case, the mucous membranes begin to produce secretions and the person generally begins to feel ill. The virus attacks the body due to the excitation of certain diseases. It is often pneumonia. But before the disease symptoms are a protective reaction of the organism. At this point, to avoid serious consequences even it can be better to consult a doctor. Most active viral diseases observed in the period from September to April, when the body is weakened and there are many other factors for disease development. Including climate.

Usually, diseases caused by viruses are very easy. In General, according to statistics, every fifth person at least once a year gets the flu. Of course, this statistics only those cases where the sick went to the doctor. In most cases people just rest at home for a few days. There are those who continue to go to work. It is because of these “heroes” viruses and distributed.

Doing so, stay home!

As a treatment can and should use a few simple tools. To get started is just not to leave the house. High temperature (subfebrile) helps to fight the disease. To knock it is not worth it, if it is not life threatening or just becomes unbearable. You have to understand that up to values of about 38-38,5 degrees as it helps the body to fight. If it rises above, it is already down. You can take antipyretic and at a lower temperature, but should be aware that, contrary to the advertising it will not allowto fight the disease, but only relieve symptoms. Actually, the ad usually says the same thing. To avoid liability, often used the word “symptom.” In short, if the temperature is below 38 degrees and you can stand — bear!

You should Also drink plenty of fluids. It not only removes from the body toxins caused by the action of a virus (and not only), but also helps to moisturize the mucous membranes, through which appears a large part of the virus. This allows you to better pick his nose or clear his throat, having cleaned thereby . It is recommended to drink herbal teas and just water. The temperature of the drink should be about 45 degrees so that it is easily digested by the stomach. But to abuse the lemons and sour berries (including teas and tinctures) do not. They will irritate the inflammation. Everything should be in moderation. Smoking and vodka with pepper will also be bad partners in the treatment.

Actually, the main tip is to go to the doctor. It would not seem that he know better, there is a likelihood that picked up a particular strain of the virus that appear each year. They did not reach the magnitude of SARS and the new Chinese virus, but can be very serious. If the temperature rises above 40 degrees and there is a sharp pain like in my ears, pull is not worth it. In some cases, the delay is really like death.

As a treatment should not take antibiotics, since they are completely powerless in the fight against the virus. They are directed against other pathogens, and can't fight viruses, from the word altogether. On the contrary you will make yourself worse, harm the intestinal flora. This will weaken the body and can bring a part of what helps in the fight against the virus.

In such places, you can buy something that will help in the fight against the virus. The main thing to do it wisely.

It is Not necessary and relying heavily on the vitamin C, as it can only do harm, especially to children, causing in some cases liver disease. Typically, a person enough amount of this vitamin that he gets from normal food with proper nutrition. Moreover, drinks and pills with vitamin C again have a negative impact on the foci of inflammation.

To combat the virus there are special preparations, but they also have to pick wisely. The strongest of these are oseltamivir and zanamivir, but take them only after consulting a doctor, because they only apply to combat .

If we talk about the means of prevention, hope for a mask is not necessary. Usual mask from the pharmacy is unable to protect the body a hundred percent, because it can not fit tightly to the face. The mask must be with the filter and be fixed very tight, but to wear that in normal conditions it is hardly worth it. However, some use of the ordinary mask is still there, especially in periods of growth disease. Let's just say she would be a good addition strong of body, though not a panacea. Key word — “a strong body”. If you follow him, ill will be considerably more difficult, as the best medicine — it is a good immune system.

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Comments (1)

2020-02-01 в 10:12:20

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