I found a way to survive without an important structure
Let's talk about antibiotics and why they should take strictly on prescription. The world health organization (who) has made the problem of the appearance in the list of serious threats facing humanity. Antibiotic resistance is now a cause of death of about 700 000 people a year, thus complicates the treatment of numerous infections, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, and gonorrhea. If scientists can find a way to fight these bacteria, a number of victims today from preventable diseases could reach 10 million deaths per year by 2050.
The widespread use of antibiotics around the world largely due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which currently constitute one of the most serious threats to health. Bacteria, like other organisms on our planet, seek to survive at any cost. After the discovery of penicillin many bacteria have become increasingly complex. To continue to exist, some bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics through changes in the genome.
Bacteria resistant to antibiotics pose a serious threat to people around the world
Today, some bacteria are even able to destroy antibiotics. They also stop the growth and division. This behavior of bacteria makes them difficult to detect for the immune system. However, the new study the scientists concentrated on the little-known method that is used to achieve antibiotic resistance. The researchers were able to show that bacteria can "change form" in the human body, to avoid exposure of antibiotics — this process does not require genetic changes contributing to the growth of bacteria.
Almost all bacteria are surrounded by a structure called the cell wall. The wall is like a thick shell that protects the bacteria from external influences. Also, the wall gives the bacteria the correct form (for example, wands or spheres) and helps them to effectively share. But human cells, this "shell" does not possess. Because of this, the immune system can easily recognize dangerous bacteria — their cell wall is very different from the rest of the cells. For the same reason, the cell wall is the target for most , such as penicillin. Therefore, antibiotics, which are aimed at finding bacteria with the "shell", can kill bacteria, without causing the person any harm.
In some cases you are being treated with antibiotics? Let's discuss it with the participants
Nevertheless, scientists have known about bacteria that can survive without cell wall. If the environment is able to protect the bacteria from the aggressive effects of the environment, bacteria can develop into so-called "L-forms", i.e. bacteria without a cell wall. Such bacteria was discovered in 1935 by microbiologist Amy Kleinberger-Nobel and was named in honor of the Institute of preventive medicine Lister.
The video below shows how bacteria change their shape.
To create a protective environment of bacteria in the laboratory, scientists often use sugar. Such changes inside the human body, usually cause antibiotics that affect cell wall of bacteria or certain immune molecules such as lysozyme — it helps to protect the eyes from bacterial infections and is present in tears. Bacteria without cell walls often become brittle and lose their shape. However, they also become partially invisible to our immune system and therefore fully resistant to all types of antibiotics, whose action is directed on search and destruction of bacteria cell wall.
This is interesting:
Scientists have long suspected that changing the shape of the bacteria may contribute to the recurrent infections, allowing bacteria to evade the immune system and resist antibiotics. However, proof of this theory was very difficult to find due to the elusive nature of L-forms and the lack of appropriate methods for their detection.
The study examined the types of bacteria associated with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI). It was found that many types of bacteria, including Enterococcus can survive in the form of L-forms in the human body. Scientists have found these bacteria using fluorescent probes that recognize bacterial DNA.
Bacteria L-forms look different
In the course of the study, the researchers tested the urine samples of elderly patients with recurrent UTI, growing them in Petri dishes with a high sugar content. This environment not only helped to protect the bacteria, but also isolated the bacteria L-forms that were present in the samples. Experts note that according to the study, antibiotics must be tested in conditions similar to the conditions in the human body. The conditions that are currently used in medical labs, do not provide sufficient protection for delicateL-forms.
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Experts hope that the results obtained will help in the future to find a way to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The combination of active antibiotics to cell wall antibiotics that kill L-forms, may be one of the ways to fight infections. So our battle with bacteria continues.
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