Today, everybody has heard about Jupiter's moon Europe. This moon, known to be covered with a layer of ice with a thickness of 24 km and it is likely that under the ice is liquid water. Researchers believe that due to the thickness of the ice underwater inhabitants can be protected from solar radiation and asteroid impact. Recall that previously, NASA announced the start of a new mission to Jupiter's moon Europe in 2025. The presence of liquid water, the researchers believe, makes the satellite of the gas giant potentially habitable. But what creatures can swim under the ice? As suggested by Monica Grady, the rector of the University of Liverpool is likely on Jupiter's moon Europe, there is advanced alien life, something resembling octopuses.
Writes , according to Professor Grady, life in Europe can be much more complicated than those that we could potentially detect on Mars. But why?
Some scientists believe that life was “jump” from world to world within a Solar system, thanks to the chunks of rocks ejected into space by impacts of comets or asteroids. Indeed, there is a whole theory of panspermia, which detail . But even if this theory is correct, what is the probability that the alleged pioneers were able to reach Jupiter's moon Europe or Saturn's moon Enceladus, which is also how Europe is a ice world?
Geophysicist from Purdue University's Jay Melosh decided this issue and presented the findings during a speech at the annual autumn meeting of the American geophysical Union, writes . Melosh used a computer model to trace the fate of 100 000 simulated Martian particles are thrown into space by asteroid impact.
He modeled three different ejection velocity: 1, 3 and 5 kilometers per second. As a result, to get on Enceladus, the tiny particles it took 4.5 billion years and the moon of Saturn got only 0,0000002% to 0,0000004% of those particles that hit the Earth. And Jupiter's satellite Europa was obtained from 0,00004% to 0,00007% of the particles of our planet. We know that about 1 ton of Martian rocks fist-size or bigger fall to the Ground. Using this figure, Melosh has estimated that Europe gets about 0.4 grams of Martian material per year, and Enceladus – only 2-4 milligrams.
it looks like the Europa – icy moon of Jupiter
These results may seem favorable for the spread of life. In the end, to turn Europe or Enceladus from uninhabited in inhabited, may be sufficient exposure to microbes. However, there are other factors that are not so optimistic. The fact that meteorites with terrestrial microbes will take at least 2 billion years to get to Enceladus. Microbes, of course, hardy, but not so. This means that if on Europa or Enceladus will indeed find life, it will probably be of local origin. According to Professor Grady, life on Mars, Europe and Enceladus – provided that it is – will be very different from each other. So, inhabitants of Mars are likely to be bacteria, but we will find them, probably under the planet's surface. But on Europa and Enceladus, in her opinion, the local life-forms can be much more complicated.
Grady believes that Europe creatures can live in the oceans beneath the solid ice shell thickness of up to 24 kilometers. Scientists have long been aware of the existence of these deep subsurface oceans on the moon of Jupiter – and possibly even life. Moreover, in August NASA announced that it is completing the final development of the space craft «Europa Clipper», who will look for signs of life on Europa. About what will be the mission to the moon of a gas giant .
Who knows what swims under the ice blocks of the moons of gas giants
According to Professor Grady, it is likely that life exists elsewhere in the milky Way, especially considering that people yet to explore all the stars in our huge galaxy. In addition, she believes is “highly probable” that the life that we can find, whether in the milky Way or beyond, will consist of the same elements we are.
And yet, the question of whether we will ever establish contact with representatives of extraterrestrial civilizations is still open. it is important to note that at the moment, no real or credible alien “signals” received from outer space, not. Research efforts are currently focused on the study of the planets and moons of the Solar system. Which is actually quite logical, because our technologies do not allow to travel far from home. But as the existence of other humanoid aliens in the Solar system, it is Grady and other researchers are not too optimistic. And again – not surprising.
When it comes to the prospects of life beyond Earth, it has almost always confident that under the icy surface of Europa there is life and it is possible that these beings will be similar to octopus.
Professor Monica Grady, during a speech at the University of Liverpool.
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someday the day will come when we find out whether there is life on Europa.
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