How dangerous mercury is and where it applies

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2020-07-31 18:40:17

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How dangerous mercury is and where it applies

Mercury beautiful but dangerous.

Since childhood we are told that mercury is dangerous, but many families still use mercury thermometers. In Europe they are banned because of the danger to humans, but that is where it is produced most. Along with the energy of the mercury atom it is, a risk that everyone understands, but I can't pass it up. This is controversial, but thanks to its properties it is still used in a huge number of branches of medicine and industry. If you are interested to learn how to get it, where to apply and how it threatens the person, beyond the usual ”very dangerous”, then you've come to the right place.

What is mercury

First Let us deal with the fact that generally represents mercury. In Latin her name sounds like Hydrargyrum. It is an element of the sixth period of the periodic system of elements, which gave us a D. Mendeleev. The atomic number of mercury in the table — 80, and applies it to a subset of zinc.

Mercury is not a gas, liquid or metal — it is a transitional metal. At room temperature it is a heavy liquid, silvery-white. The most important feature is for the common man of mercury vapor, which are very poisonous.

65 million years ago,

There are only two chemical elements which under normal conditions are in liquid state. Mercury is one of them along with bromine.

the danger of mercury

Despite the fact that mercury looks like something holistic, it generates a lot of vapor, which, when ingested, can lead not only to lung but also to other often irreversible changes. It is especially dangerous at the stage of fetal development.

When ingested, mercury has toxic effects on the digestive, immune and nervous system. In addition, affects the skin, kidneys, lungs and even eyes. No wonder that carry the mercury to the top ten substances that pose the greatest threat to public health.

it is better not to do.

The Most dangerous mercury in the form of vapor or in solution. When immersed in water it leads to the destruction of microorganisms and remains there forever in the form of the solution. In the end, it can get into the water system and harm the whole community. Moreover, for human exposure is sufficient even minimum amounts of mercury.

Also share two types of mercury compounds — organic and inorganic. The first (for example, dimethylbutyl) are much more dangerous, because more efficiently interact with the systems of the body.

table How many chemical elements

How to get mercury

Obtaining mercury . For its production is necessary to process a mineral called cinnabar or red stone. Extraction of metal is produced by oxidation and distillation of roasting. As a result, mercury vapor. They have a high temperature and must undergo additional processing. These pairs congenerous and cleaned, giving the output of the usual mercury.

Large deposits of mercury are currently in Spain and Slovenia.

Very rare, but mercury can still be found in the form of deposits in liquid form. However, at the present level of technology is not so important. In the old days to find mercury is in ”ready” form was really important.

the Use of mercury in medicine

Continuing the theme of the dangers of mercury, it is worth noting that before people did not know about and Vice versa was treated in her purest form. Up to 60-ies of the last century people did not think about possible problems. They put dental fillings that were mercury compounds, took medication, which she was, and absolutely not worried about the broken thermometer. Moreover, many of the children then broke thermometers to play with the mercury. It is interesting shimmers, and if you are not aware of the danger, then everything is fine. I will say that it is so so fun? Then remember how all the polls spinning spinners.

They flow and merge, but still poisoning the air.

If you take in more ancient times, in the middle ages it was the norm to give a person to drink a glass of mercury. It was believed that the heavy liquid will push all the excess in the body, but at the same time straighten the colon. What was the end of that treatment, history is silent, but it is unlikely that the patients lived happily ever after.

until 1967 in the USSR until the late 1970-ies in the USA mercury was used extensively for the treatment of syphilis because of its high resistance to other drugs. However, after this ”treatment” in people's hair fell out and was broken other body functions.

You Can give examples of antiseptics, diuretics, laxatives and other drugs, which included mercury. Now she was only in the cartoons (not all countries) and as a preservative for some vaccines, but in minimal doses.

What to do if you broke a thermometer

A Broken thermometer may seem like a minor issue, but it's still a problem. There will be a minimum of 2 grams of mercury, that is not enough. Even on the national portals, in particular , is the answer to the question, what to do in this case.

If you spilled a small amount of mercury (broken thermometer), the first thing to remove from the premises of people and animals, then open the window andclose the door. Also it is necessary to protect the respiratory mask or bandage. Then immediately begin to collect the mercury.

It looks very harmless, but you should not relax.

Two grams of mercury contained in one thermometer, in a closed room with a volume of 20 cubic meters create the vapor concentration, which is thousands of times higher than safe human levels.

the

How to collect mercury

The collection of mercury in any case, do not baste it with a broom, so as not to provoke the formation of fine mercury dust. The larger will be drop — the better. A vacuum cleaner too bad mate, since vaporized mercury goes through the filters and end up in the air in a more dangerous form.

A Small amount spilled from a thermometer of mercury can be collected using the normal medical pear or piece of paper and a knitting needle or thick needle. To collect the small drops you can use pieces of tape.

All that you have collected and what you collected, put in a jar and close the lid. Then thoroughly wash the scene. A good option would be to wipe this place with a solution of manganese or soap-soda solution. After cleaning be sure to wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.

wash hands Thoroughly after cleaning the mercury.

the

How to throw a broken thermometer and mercury from it

In Any case do not dispose of collected mercury in the garbage disposal or drain. This can lead to further risk of uncontrolled infection. Put a jar of collected waste on the balcony or in the garage at the first opportunity and pass it demercurization centre for disposal.

the

How to understand that were poisoned by mercury

Symptoms of mercury poisoning occur after about 8-24 hours. The main symptoms include General weakness, pain when swallowing, headache and fever. After some time, start to hurt the gums and stomach, and also appear gastric disorders and even pneumonia. There are even cases of death.

cream for the skin may cause poisoning.

What is the thermometer more accurate? Electronic or mercury?

Professionals often have to answer this question. Usually they say that it would be more precise mercury thermometer, but the house must have and electronic. They explain this by the fact that both instruments may have errors and their indications should be checked.

Under normal conditions, the mercury always a liquid.

The Accuracy of the mercury thermometer is approximately 0.1 degree. For electronic deflection usually are in the range from 0.2 to 0.4 degrees. The biggest error from the non-contact thermometers — up to 0.5 degrees. If the sensor is non-contact thermometer not to wipe, the variances can and does reach 1.5-2 degrees.

We Must remember that the mercury thermometer is that it shows a maximum during the measurement the temperature at the time, as electronic usually gives average readings and contactless and is momentary. Body temperature can 5 minutes to be within one degree. It must also be borne in mind.

Use non-contact thermometer is most appropriate for measuring the temperature of visitors of public places or passengers of aircraft, as well as children. In these cases it is impossible to detain the person for 5 minutes for more accurate measurement of temperature

Mercury in industry

In industry, mercury is used more often than in medicine. Including it found application in high-precision thermometers with a wide operating temperature range (those for which it remains in a liquid state).

the Mercury should not only produce, but also to dispose.

Mercury vapor is still filled fluorescent lamps. Her couples glow in a glow discharge, and the spectrum of emitting a lot of ultraviolet light. To light became visible, inside the bulb is coated with phosphor. Without this coating, the lamp is the source of the hard ultrafilter radiation. In this form they are used for disinfection of surfaces and premises. For example, in the subway cars (in depot) or in the processing of escalator handrails when they are at the bottom.

So UV treated subway cars.

Alchemists of the past believed that the mercury is the Foundation of any substances, and if she return to a solid state by means of sulphur or arsenic, it will become gold, but they have of course nothing happened

Mercury is used in some parts of the circuits with high average current (hundreds of amps), the position sensors, and some chemical sources of current in semiconductor detectors of radioactive radiation and even as a working body of some hydrodynamic bearings operating under heavy load.

Previously, mercury is also used in the manufacture of paint covering the underwater part of ships to prevent fouling. Until the mid XX century mercury was used extensively in the manometers, barometers and other weather instruments. a From tradition and went to measure the pressure in millimeters of mercury.

the Principle of operation of mercury.

Mercury Found its application in the fashion industry. For example, previously it was used in the hatproduction for the manufacture of felt and amalgamation surfaces in the manufacture of mirrors.

If you do not know where to read the most interesting news from the world of science, then go in . There are so many cool articles!

Now the mercury are trying to find analogues to reduce the dependence on this dangerous element, but until the end it do not work. We can only treat it with care and not to neglect safety standards.

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