I Doubt that in the world there are people who have not heard the word tsunami. People who live far from the water, not face them, but the residents of coastal areas are in potential danger. But sometimes tsunamis that strike coastal areas indirectly relate to even people who have never seen the sea. The emergence of a «waves» more difficult than it seems, and their speed and destructive power is simply amazing. In this article I'll explain what tsunamis are and how they arise. Also I will tell you how they predict and why it's not enough and people are still dying by the thousands. Well, of course, will answer the most interesting question — how high was the largest tsunami. I'm sure the answer is very many new.
First and foremost, it is necessary to understand what distinguishes the tsunami from those small waves that we love so much, being on the coast. The difference between these two types of waves is not only in size and height.
Remember a couple times I got on the beach in high waves, which didn't seem harmless. The wave itself struck me with such force like I flat fell into the water from a height a couple of meters. When I was inside her, she tightened me like a washing machine or even a couple of times, beating the bottom. And when the mass of water started to return back to the sea, it was very hard to resist this pressure. Be careful when the height of the waves of the sea more than 50-60 centimeters. It's really dangerous!
These are the ordinary waves, which are formed by the incoming flow of wind which drives the water flow. When the lower part of the wave is inhibited on the bottom near the shore, the top begins to grow, like a snowball. So wave is gathering its strength, until then, until the crest collapses.
The Wind toward the coast most blows the time when the maximum hot sand and over the water the air is cold enough. Due to the movement of air masses and the wind comes and the waves. Sometimes the wind can't predict even those who knows .
Can wave to go from the shore? Yes you can, but it is very rare. Even if the shore is blowing a very strong wind, he will not be able to create a wave. In the direction of its movement the bottom will fall, not rise. That is, no second factor is necessary for the formation of a wave.
The main difference between tsunamis from normal waves is that, as they arise. Regular waves appear due to the effects of wind. They are rarely as destructive as a tsunami, although also can harm coastal infrastructure. As a rule, the destruction was limited to a few meters from the shore.
A Tsunami is born not far from the shore, and, as a rule, a strong distance from it. There are several reasons for the formation of a tsunami. Among them submarine earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides. But the latter rarely lead to the formation of a strong tsunami. But one of the landslides caused the highest tsunami in history.
it looks like the wave in Nazare, Portugal.
About 85 percent of tsunamis occur due to underwater earthquakes. For example, a tsunami in 2011, which very much struck Japan was caused by a displacement of one of the plates on the bottom of the Pacific ocean. This offset and caused a wave.
In the ocean a tsunami though moving with a speed of several hundred kilometers per hour, but people on ships may not even notice them. Closer to shore when the depth becomes smaller, the tsunami begins to lose speed, dropping it to 100-130 km/h, and climb to several tens meters.
It's hard To believe, but the highest tsunami in history had a height of over 500 meters (!!!) and speed about 160 km/h. This did not happen in the time of dinosaurs, and only a little more than half a century ago. If exactly 9 Jul 1958 in Alaska. Died only 5 people.
Many people argue about this phenomenon, and the witnesses be given some kind of incoherent confusion. Wave height was measured by the nature of the damage to the plants on the slopes of the banks. No more significant evidence of this was not.
This tsunami was triggered by a landslide. From the mountains the height of about a kilometre in the earthquake fell into the water millions of cubic meters of rock and ice. They caused a wave of great strength. According to eyewitnesses, the glacier on top of a mountain just jumping up and trembling of the earth.
Sure sign that a tsunami is coming to shore is the tide. If for no apparent reason retreated from the shore a few feet and bared bottom, there is a strain. If the tide was more than 100 meters, you have to run in the opposite direction to water direction. It is better to choose the hill, but you still need to run as far as possible. You will havejust a few minutes to be saved. In many places, where there is a risk that natural phenomena, on the streets you can find signs of the direction in which it should be run.
These signs can be found wherever there is a threat of a tsunami. Specifically, this is set in Patong, Thailand.
Generally, the more water went from the shore, the higher the wave. But the tsunami was not always accompanied by low tide. Sometimes they come without derogating of the water.
Another sure sign of what is to be saved, is tremors. It is not always felt when an underwater earthquake, but if it is just better to move away from the shore. In zoomopen regions it is not a recommendation but a rule.
Less likely to suffer from the tsunami, closed the Bay, and most areas with a very flat beach.
Not only can theoretically create an artificial tsunami, but did it. This became possible at the end of last century, after the creation of the atomic bomb. The Americans time and again tested these methods call a tsunami.
However, efficiency in this case was not that big. Underwater explosions to call the tsunamis produced at a depth of about 60 meters. In the radius of couple of kilometers from the explosion, the height of waves reaches several tens of meters, but then very much reduced.
Underwater explosion can cause a very strong tsunami.
This happens due to the fact that when the explosion happens it displace the water, as happens when a sudden change in landscape or the bottom of the meteorite. That's why underwater explosions are not as effective and are more likely to spray water. However, work in this direction has been carried out and many countries have their own experience in this direction. For example, Russia has an underwater drone capable of carrying a nuclear warhead. Potentially it can be used for underwater explosion and call a tsunami.
This underwater testing of nuclear weapons banned. All the research in this area is theoretical.
The Main method of a prediction of a tsunami is the analysis of seismic activity. Simply put, if it shook, then it can cause the arrival of the wave.
A Small earthquake with a small balescu not require a response. If balnot reaches 7, this is followed by a tsunami warning in all the regions where it potentially may come. Given the speed of the waves in the ocean, usually on the adoption of measures is not more than a couple of tens of minutes. However, there are cases when the second wave comes in an hour after the first.
There are predictions of a tsunami after the fact. In this case, the arrival of waves is predicted after it has already come. That is, if the wave goes through the ocean and blows on his way to the island, it is clear that it will reach areas that are further along her route. Such tsunamis are called teletsunami.
Intermediate checks are sensors, which are in the form of buoys floating in the oceans in the most dangerous places. All these methods combined provide the ability to somehow predict the coming waves. This typically saves thousands of lives.
it looked like the tsunami in Southeast Asia in 2004.
The deadly tsunami that struck Southeast Asia 26 December 2004. It originated in the Indian ocean and killed approximately 240,000 people.
most of the victims were in Indonesia — approximately 180,000 people. Next up was island of Sri Lanka, which killed approximately 37 000 people. Relatively few people died in Thailand — about 5 000 people. Several thousand people took the tsunami in other regions. The wave even reached Somalia. This is an example of teletsunami.
Against the background of the tsunami in Southeast Asia, which has killed more than 240,000 people, we can say that Japan killed quite a few people. However, the number of deaths still amounted to about 15 000 people, and approximately 9 000 was missing. It happened on 11 March 2011. The earthquake in the Pacific ocean (300 km from the coast) raised a wave height of 40 meters, which demolished everything in its path. Even though not the biggest in the history of the number of victims, the destruction was very strong. Usually underwater tremors felt weak on the shore, but this time, buildings in Tokyo swayed from the shaking of the earth.
Among the dead was to 15 times lower than in 2004. Thanks to the preparedness of the population. But the city was badly damaged. In addition, because the earthquake had damaged the cooling system of the first three units of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. This led to melting of core and subsequent explosions. Why was it necessary to build such a facility onzoomopen banks in the region, is a separate issue. But in fact the victims of the tsunami you can record the disaster relief workers and displaced persons.
it looked like the tsunami in Japan in 2011.
The Answer to this question can be only one. the Tsunami should be afraid! But don't turn it into paranoia and to cancel a beach vacation. And escape in case of warning should definitely.
as soon As I saw the tide, immediately run.
The Water just seems soft and harmless, but the volume of a cube of sea water with the size of 1x1x1 meter weighs about a ton (about the weight of the car). Tsunami brings hundreds of millions of tons of water at speeds over 100 km/h. Such a wave can kill at the first point of contact. Chance of survival if you stay on the shore, almost there. That's why we need to run as far as possible from the shore, as soon as I heard the warning, or saw a sharp ebb. It is advisable to choose the higher ground. The only way to save his life.
Such a wave is not so fantastic, if the study of history.
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