In fact, in the time of dinosaurs on Earth lived by animals
Millions of years ago, our planet was dominated by giant lizards. It is possible that they would be here still if not an accident — an asteroid Chicxulub, which fell on the surface of our planet 65 million years ago. It was he, according to the results of the latter , was the cause of death of these prehistoric monsters. But who else besides dinosaurs lived on the Earth nearly 200 million years ago? After the asteroid all the dinosaurs became extinct, but life on the planet is still here. Let's meet the amazing animals that shared the planet with the giant lizards.
The ancient was First described by scientists in 1824. Found the remains of nine-meter length has been found in the beginning of 1818 near the town of Woodstock in the UK. In 1841, the English paleontologist Richard Owen have collected and summarized all known at that time information on fossil reptiles. He called them “dinosaurs”, which translated from Greek means “terrible lizard”.
Soon after, in 1843, in sandy sediments of the geological plates in Connecticut (USA), paleontologists have discovered traces of freakishly large birds. In comparison with this discovery, the elephant's leg seemed miniature. Since the researchers did not give rest question about what size it had to be a bird that made these tracks. The answer, as we know today, is that these footprints belonged to, not the bird. In the Mesozoic era the history of our planet since the Jurassic period (about 200 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous period (about 70 million years ago), the Earth was inhabited by “terrible lizard”. Some of them, like a kangaroo, ran on its hind legs, and the traces left by them are strongly reminiscent of traces of modern birds.
Turns Out, millions of years ago dinosaurs owned the land, sea and air. A variety of reptiles inhabited the pine and fern forests of the Earth. Some flew between the trees, spread its leathery wings, while others, like the size of chickens, ran across the meadow, and in the marshes lived a huge and very slow dinosaurs — brahiozavry. By the way, the world's largest skeleton of a Brachiosaurus is located in the geological-palaeontological Museum of the University of Berlin. The bones of this giant were discovered at Tendaguru mountain in Africa. Tall Brachiosaurus reached 11,87 m, width — 22 m and weighed at least 50 thousand kg. However, the biggest and most intimidating, as we know today, was Tyrannosaurus Rex. This predator lived on the territory of modern USA and Canada. At length the monster reached 10 meters, and the height five. His meter-long jaws were armed with hundreds of sharp and large teeth. If it existed today, it could easily carry a Rhino in its mouth.
the Skeleton of a Brachiosaurus in the geological-palaeontological Museum of the University of Berlin
But if the land, the sky and the sea were in the power of the dinosaurs, and, more importantly, when lived mammals? According to a study published in the journal , the first mammals were running around the surface of our planet with the dinosaurs. The researchers believe that after he died, all the other animals came out of the shadows.
Two scientific articles tell us about the individual mammals that were the size of modern hamsters. Fossils of these extinct relatives are known to us mammals were discovered in China and analyzed by an international team from the University of Chicago (USA) and Museum of natural history, Beijing (China). Having carefully studied the shape of the bones a paleontologist zhe-XI Luo from the American University and his colleagues came to the conclusion that Agrodolce and Locofocos coexisted with dinosaurs 160 million years ago.
Externally, these animals resembled the present-the mole and the squirrel. Locofocos dwelt under the earth, as evidenced by his short, broad fingers with two phalanges, similar to small blades. But the spine of this 9 centimeter mammal seems particularly suitable for underground movements. The agrodolce was approximately 14 cm in length and dwelled among the trees. Judging by the structure of the limbs and spine, agrodolce was perfectly adapted to climbing trees. Researchers believe that he was frequently down to earth, as it probably fed on sage. The following conclusions can be drawn from the structure of the teeth , which could pierce the stems of plants. In addition, the researchers emphasize that in the anatomy of both animals showed signs that coincide with the action of genes identified in modern mammals. It is therefore possible that these genetic cocktails were so evolutionarily advantageous that survived to our days.
So, probably, looked Agrodolce and Docfolder
The Researchers said that the remains indicate that mammals existed in the Jurassic period. Out, little by little, we learn that in the shadow of the dinosaurs lived and other animals.
But the tiny docotor and agrodolce was not the only mammals that lived during the age of the terrible lizards. As writes the edition , more than 150 million years agothere was a well-known Australian echidna and platypus. They represent a transitional link between reptiles and other mammals. The Australian echidna is oviparous , that is, to put it mildly, not quite normal. First Australian echidna was described in 1792 by the zoologist George Shaw, who a few years later and described the platypus. However, due to the long trunk of the animal Show first decided that the Australian echidna — is a relative of the anteater. Only 10 years later, the anatomist Edward home found in the echidna and platypus in common — the cloaca, into which open the bowel, ureters and reproductive tract. On the basis of this feature in the future, has been allocated squad a single pass.
Echidna and platypus belong to the suborder of Pervozveri
However, one of the most astonishing discoveries took place in the summer of 2000, when a team of researchers led by Timothy Rowe of the University of Texas at Austin, stumbled upon the fossil bones scattered among the rocks of the Kayenta formation in Northern Arizona. Initially found the remains was not surprised paleontologists. Only 9 years later, the expert to prepare the fossil for study, noticed something surprising: the remains were tiny teeth and jaw bone with a length of just 1 inch. Later, scientists determined that the remains belonged to Scientarium — that dwelt on Earth for about 185 million years ago. Adult Scientarium the size of a large cat, so it could be mistaken for mammal, if not a large jaw bone, large teeth and lack of ears. Scientarium — this cynodont, a member of the group that occurred mammals.
Subsequently, the researchers extracted from the rock, the remains of the babies first mammals or their relatives , and not one, but 38. Thus, the finding becomes one of the most momentous in decades. Scientarium, according to researchers, provides important information about what characteristics define mammals as well as what features were present in their earlier relatives. Skeleton Scientarium much like the skeleton of a mammal and at the same time in the skeleton of reptiles. The remains of the young suggests that unlike mammals, who spend more time on the upbringing of offspring, they were able to fend for themselves thanks to well-developed bones and teeth.
Early mammals co-existed with feathered dinosaurs, such as Sinotyrannus, in temperate ecosystems of the Cretaceous period on the territory of modern Liaoning in North China
Due to these findings, scientists can learn more about mammals. The fossils discovered in different parts of the world refuted the belief that mammals of the dinosaur era were small, unremarkable insectivores that lived in the shadow of the giant reptiles.
The death of the dinosaurs was good news for mammals, whose number increased significantly immediately after the event. So, according to a study published in the journal behavior mammals quickly changed, as our furry ancestors first began to come out of hiding not only at night but also in daytime. It is possible that this factor could have an impact on the evolution of Homo Sapiens.
The Paleontologists and evolutionary biologists have long believed that the ancestors of modern mammals were nocturnal animals. The fact that most mammals can see well in low light. They also developed sense of smell and hearing and still have whiskers (e.g. whiskers of cats) that allow them to feel what is right in front of them — all of these qualities are incredibly useful in the dark. Similarly, when mammals began to go out during the day, it was a mystery, because behavior is difficult to distinguish from fossils. Scientists rely on the shape of the eye sockets and nasal cavities, to determine which senses were important to the extinct animal, but these clues can mislead. However, to understand exactly when our ancient ancestors changed nocturnal n day, the scientists examined daytime and nighttime habits of more than 2415 species of living mammals, and then used genetic data to build pedigrees, noting that the Earth could appear very early day ancestors.
here is the cassowary — the bird-dinosaur. They are — large flightless birds that lived on the planet 100 million years ago.
According to the study published in the journal of the first appearance of the ancestors who were active in the daytime, probably lived roughly 65.8 million years ago — only 200,000 years after the mass extinction that wiped out the dinosaurs, except for birds. For example, the common ancestor of modern camels, hippos and deer probably moved on with night life on the daily around the same time. Today camels are active during the day, while the hippos are active at night, and deer observed mixed way of life. Overall, the researchers concluded that the daily activity of animals begins the moment that the dinosaurs disappeared. The reason for this, obviously, is the fact thatto go out during the day was too risky.
This is consistent with the data of fossils that clearly show that the number and types of mammals increased rapidly after the dinosaurs did not. The work supports the idea that mammals had conquered more territory and greatly expanded their behavioural repertoire. The researchers also noted that modern primates are generally active during the day, and the ancestors of the primates, it seems, was one of the first who acquired daily habits. This may be the reason that we and other apes color vision and a weak sense of smell and hearing is much better than many other mammals. Thus, the fall of the asteroid Chicxulub allowed the ancient mammals to change their lifestyle and occupy the land, the sea and water that have been previously owned giant lizards.
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