Verification of information — the only way to not fall victim to marketers and scammers
The Time in which we live, will undoubtedly go down in history as the era of the information storm and . Data from numerous studies indicate that people in General tend to trust false beliefs. We recently wrote about the reasons why people trust the fake news. Help to find the truth among the endless stream of information can the habit of regularly checking the facts. However, according to scientists this is not as easy as it might seem at first glance.
If you listen often enough, you start to believe in them very easily. This effect is called the illusory truth effect refers to numerous cognitive biases.
The illusory Effect of truth is very like advertisers and politicians. But if you think you are not susceptible to this cognitive distortion, it is likely wrong. According to a study published in the journal P in April 2019, people with high intelligence and an analytical mind are also affected by the illusory effect of truth.
List of cognitive biases
However, this does not mean that we can't do anything. The results of a recent study in the journal Cognition showed that the use of their knowledge for fact-checking false allegations can hinder us to believe that it's true, when we repeatedly hear verified.
The illusory Effect of the truth stems from the fact that a duplicate approval we perceive easily and freely. takes easy to assimilate information for the signal that the statement is true. This effect occurs even when we hear the statement, knowing it was wrong. Nadia Brashier from Harvard University and her colleagues wondered whether the call for a focus on accuracy of presentation to encourage people to use their knowledge and not rely on a sense of ease to comprehension of the material.
In the study, researchers asked subjects to read 103 60 well-known facts, some of which were true (e.g., Italian city, known for its canals — Venice), and some false (e.g., the nearest planet to the Sun is ). Then the subjects were divided into two groups. One group assessed how interesting was each statement, and the other — how it was true. Then in the second part of the study both groups showed the same claims 60 and 60 new. All the statements were mixed — some truthful, some not. The subjects were asked to identify which of the following statements is true and which a lie.
According to researchers, the existing knowledge about the world is effective against some cognitive biases
The Researchers found that the participants who focused on how interesting was the assertion in the first part of the study, demonstrated the illusory truth effect: subsequently, they estimated the false claims they've already seen more true than the new false claims. But the group that originally focused on the accuracy of the statements did not show this effect, assessing new and repeat false statements as equally true.
This discovery suggests that the use of their knowledge to a critical analysis of claims that when we encounter him for the first time, can serve as an inoculation against the illusory truth effect. And it apparently has a fairly long-lasting consequences: in another experiment, the team found that participants who initially focused on the accuracy of the claims, two days later, showed no signs of the illusory truth effect.
Experts note that the consideration of the accuracy of claims useful only if you already have relevant knowledge (for example, if you know that the nearest planet to it is mercury, not Venus). In the course of further research, the scientists found that the assessment of the credibility of false claims about whom the subjects knew little, does not protect against illusory truth effect.
Thus, basic knowledge about the world necessary to counter false beliefs. The results of the research state that people might need to push to ensure that they used their existing knowledge more often. Education is only part of the solution to the crisis of misinformation. Researchers believe that the habit of verifying information received capable of making our lives better and safer and needs to be inculcated from childhood.
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