Eight worlds of the Solar system where we might find life

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2017-08-02 19:00:11

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Our modest possibilities of the Universe of the study show that only our home planet Earth includes confirmed signs of life. But the raw materials needed for life, is available everywhere, from the bowels of the asteroid to an interstellar gas clouds and protoplanetary nebulae. Chemical combinations associated with the building blocks of life, even complex organic molecules find almost everywhere, wherever you look. However, perhaps we don't have to look that far to find life — eight worlds, besides Earth, in our Solar system offer unique opportunities for search and detection of organic, biological activity.

Signature organic, life-giving molecules find throughout the cosmos, including the large zvezdoobrazovaniya regions near the Orion nebula

The truth is, there is a big gap between organic molecules and what we now call living organisms. Although there are many interesting features that could find a life unknown to us, yet we haven't found anything on other worlds that could consider "alive", and didn't find any remains of past life. But the Solar system is a great place to start the search because it is close at hand. Knowing nothing for certain, we can only imagine where else, besides Earth, you could find life. Here is a list of the eight best options, from least likely to most likely compiled by Ethan Siegel from Medium.com.

Europe, one of the largest satellites in the Solar system, orbits Jupiter. Beneath its frozen, icy surface is quite warm ocean of liquid water heated by tidal forces of Jupiter

the

Europe

The Second largest moon of Jupiter, Europe may at first glance seem too remote from the Sun to be a good candidate for life. But Europe has two special moments: a lot of water, more than Land and some internal heating due to tidal forces of Jupiter. Under the surface of the ice Europe holds a huge ocean of liquid water, and the heating of its internal parts due to the gravity of Jupiter can create a situation strongly reminiscent of the invigorating hydrothermal vents at the bottom of earth's oceans. It is unlikely that life in Europe will be similar to the one that we have on the Earth's surface, but the life that can survive, reproduce and evolve, will still be life, whatever you call it.

One of the most intriguing — and least expensive — ideas the search for life in the ocean of Enceladus is to run the probe through the eruption of a geyser, collecting samples and analyzing them for organic substances

the

Enceladus

Saturn's Icy moon less Europe and less water, but under the surface there is a unique liquid ocean (under a kilometer-thick ice). And it spews giant plumes of water into space. These geysers, and gave us to understand that there is liquid water, and in combination with other elements and molecules necessary for life, such as methane, ammonia and carbon dioxide under the oceans of this world could be life. Europe is warmer, it has more water, so — as we think — more chances. But you should not write Enceladus off, because it is thinner ice surface and the eruption where spectacular. Therefore, we can find life through a space mission, and we don't even have to drill for the surface.

Withered river indicate water-rich Mars in the past

the

Mars

When the Red planet was very Earth-like. In the first billion years life of the Solar system, the water freely flowed on the Martian surface, carving out the rivers, accumulating in lakes and oceans, leaving clues that can help us today. Features associated with past water like balls of hematite (which, incidentally, is often associated with life on Earth), are quite common. In addition, the Rover "Kyuriositi" found an active underground and a variable source of methane, which could indicate the extant life today. Today, as we know, liquid water is still present on the surface of Mars, although very salty. But is there life on Mars? Was it at all? We still have to find out.

the Surface of Titan beneath the clouds contain methane lakes, rivers and waterfalls. How about life?

the

Titanium

Enceladus would be the most likely abode of life in the Saturn system, if we did not admit that it is in a unearthly type. Perhaps life is different from biological systems, to which we are accustomed on Earth? Atmosphere denser than our planet, the second largest moon in our Solar system — Titan — stores of liquid methane on the surface: the oceans, rivers and even waterfalls. Would life to use methane on another planet the same as using water on the Earth? If the answer is «», on Titan today could live organisms.

Surface of Venus, taken the only spacecraft, which successfully landed and transmitted data from the world

the

Venus

Venus is a living hell. The temperature at the surface is coming to 482 degrees, so no machine can survive more than a few hours after landing on the planet burning. However hot it is not because of the surface, and because of the dense and rich in carbon dioxide of the atmosphere, covered with warm blankets sulfuric acid. The surface of Venus is obviously completely unsuitable for life, but you can live not only on the surface. If you climb to a height of 100 kilometers, in the upper cloud layers of Venus, the environment is surprisingly similar to the earth: the same temperature, pressure, less acidity. It may well be that, having its own unique chemical history, this environment is filled with life based on carbon.

the spacecraft "Voyager-2" did this color photo of Neptune's moon Triton on August 24, 1989 from a distance of 550,000 km. This image was composed of images skipped through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters

the

Triton

You've probably heard almost nothing about the largest satellite of Neptune, but he is the most amazing and unique among all the worlds of the Solar system. It "smoked" black volcanoes, it rotates totally wrong and came from the Kuiper belt. Being larger and more massive than Pluto and Eris, it was once the king of Kuiper belt objects, and now, in orbit of the last planet in our Solar system, it demonstrates the presence of many life-important materials, including nitrogen, oxygen, frozen water and methane ice. Can any form of primitive life to exist in these wilds of energy? Completely!

This world map shows the surface of Ceres saturated colors covering infrared wavelengths beyond the visible range

the

Ceres

It May seem strange the very possibility of the existence of life on this asteroid. But when the asteroids fall to the Ground, we find not only the 20 amino acids necessary for life, but 100 other: blocks of life everywhere. Can the largest asteroid of all of these, showing the white salt deposits on the bottom of their bright craters, in fact you have a life? Although the answer is "probably not," do not forget that collisions between asteroids and Kuiper belt objects brought raw material for primitive life appeared on Earth. Although today we assume that the active biology could appear before the formation of the Earth. If so, signatures of life could be trapped in worlds like Ceres, which is the best candidate to search for life. You only need to take a closer look.

Pluto's Atmosphere, photographed the "New horizons"

the

Pluto

Who could have expected that the most distant planet of our system — the temperature at which close to absolute zero — will be a candidate for a shelter life? And yet, Pluto has an atmosphere and very interesting surface features. He has the ice, like a Triton, something like earth's atmosphere and ocean. How about the living? New horizons provided us with lots of information, but to make sure we need to plan a mission to Pluto, which falls on its surface.

We always thought that alone in the Solar system and the Universe is unimaginable, and yet it is only a side effect of the search such as we, the same life. If we go and investigate possible places to live, not only can we find the familiar life, but also strangers. The probability is, and it is not zero. Whenever we feel hopeless, alone, the Universe was an incredible way to cheer us.

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