Although from the point of view of astronomy the milky Way in size is pretty "average" galaxy, in fact it can be up to 100 billion planets! Needless to say that most of them are still not fully understood, and, I think, to explore our galaxy, as, for example, a room in an apartment, you will need hundreds or thousands of years. Of those planets, the existence of which is confirmed by scientists, each has its own unique features and characteristics, sometimes dramatically different from those we are accustomed to see on Earth. What planet are the most interesting?
At a distance of about 22 light-years from our Sun located a planet called LTT1445Ab. Around it are three stars, which represent a kind of copy of the Sun. The planet is approximately 1.35 times more Land and 8 times it gets more massive and thus 5 times more solar radiation from their stars.
Not a planet, but a real Solarium
Because this exoplanet is located not so far (some planets are hundreds of light years from the Sun), it gives astronomers a unique opportunity to study carefully the composition of its atmosphere. Now researchers are trying to find in her the signs of oxygen and water vapor, which can indicate the possible presence of life. But do not expect to find the exoplanet any traces of potential organisms: the extremely high temperatures and high radiation levels make this place totally unsuitable for the origin of life. Still, the light from the three "Suns" did not go unnoticed.
Still a year lasted as Earth, I have not been
Among all the currently known exoplanets one of the most similar to our planet is Kepler 438b. She was found just 4 years ago, and it even has its own miniature Sun — red dwarf (which is much smaller and cooler than our Sun). The distance to it be healthy — more than 470 light years! Why scientists assign to it such hopes? The planet is located in a place where not too hot and not too cold to support water in liquid form on the planet's surface.
The Mass of this planet is not fully understood, scientists believe that it is more of the earth only 1.4 times, while the surface temperature can vary from 0 to 60 degrees Celsius. Sounds just great, right? But do not rush to collect things: astronomers have observed and found that "mini Sun" of the planet Kepler 438b quite regularly there are very powerful emissions of radiation, which ultimately could make this planet completely uninhabitable.
Planeta Kepler 452b was discovered by a space telescope "Kepler" in 2015, when she passed in front of its home star — also a kind of "Sun", as you understand. However, this "Sun" is located about 1400 light years from us and some colder. The radius of the planet is quite a bit greater than the radius of the Earth, but the year it is 385 days! For extrasolar planets it is the closest indicator to the usual inhabitants of our planet.
And the Sun is there, and the normal year, and even temperature!
Like most of the other planets discovered by the telescope "Kepler" (hence they are given names), the mass of this planet remains unknown, but scientists speculate that it is about 5 times larger than the earth.
However, all will depend on the composition of the atmosphere, where the planet has. It has not been studied by astronomers.
Planeta Proxima-b, located just 4.2 light-years from Earth in the habitable zone of its star — a red dwarf. The location it great and the flight is not so far (well, pretty close), but a year ago, all hopes for its settlement collapsed. Scientists have found that the star Proxima Centauri ("the Sun" of the planet) thrown in space just for its huge size flash. If the planet Proxima b existed any form of life, the flash caught 10 times more powerful and brighter brightest and powerful flares on our Sun, it just burned.
Not long ago, a large outbreak killed every living thing on this planet
Currently in development are new telescopes that will allow us a more detailed look at the planet Proxima Centauri b and to find out whether it contains any life (which under the circumstances is unlikely). Astronomers believe that this planet is unlike many other can have a magnetic field. However, to effectively protect the surface of the planet will be required in this case, 100 times stronger magnetic field than our Earth has.
he's just not for swimming
Planeta Kepler 62f hasits orange dwarf star that illuminates her and is about 1200 light years from us. It is cooler than the Sun, so the planet itself is pretty cool: the average temperature there is around -30 degrees Celsius. Due to the relatively stable climate scientists believe that under the icy crust of this planet is hidden in the ocean, which in its size can compare with Europe.
Plus there's a very beautiful night views, because the sky is constantly shining, the analogue of Venus — Kepler-62e. Planet passes behind the orbit of 267 days, which is less than a year on Earth. Well, the new year will be more. But first I have to get there.
In this star system, only two planets
the Star of Teegarden was discovered by scientists in 2003. It is a dim red dwarf, inferior in luminosity to our Sun is about one hundred thousand times, by mass – more than ten, and the diameter is seven. Around it the planets move Teegarden b and c Teegarden. The first makes a complete revolution around the star of Teegarden in about 5 days! This is very fast considering that even our mercury takes 88 days to once "walk" around the Sun. Distance from us — of 12.5 light-years.
So (in theory) looks like a sunset on these planets.
As to climate, surface temperature Teegarden b varies from zero to +50 degrees Celsius, and the average is around 28 degrees. So, a planet more like Mars, but astronomers believe that on its surface may be water in liquid form. Although I would first try to reach Mars, and only then to draw conclusions about the habitability of other planets.
While on one side of the raging heat, the other can be frozen alive
It Seems that the planet Gliese 581 was inspired by Dante when he wrote his "divine Comedy". It orbits a red dwarf is many times smaller than our Sun, the luminosity of which is only 1.3% of our sun. One of its features was that one side of the planet always facing the star, while the other stares into space. As our Moon.
And that makes it incredibly interesting. If you exit on the side of the planet facing the Sun, then steam in less than a second. On the other side — will freeze during this time. In the "zone of twilight" between the two extremes is theoretically possible to live, but this life will be like hell. Something similar happened in the movie "Chronicles of Riddick", when the planet with the telling name of the Crematorium turned to the star, and at this time on its surface were incinerated all life. I watched this movie? Tell .
Here, VIN Diesel was able to get out, and whether on the planet?
Planeta 55 Cancri e is almost completely made of crystalline diamond. Once she collapsed, but the carbon core remains and under high temperatures and enormous pressures it has become one big diamond. However, with one drawback — a temperature of 1648 degrees Celsius on the surface.
This diamond is several times larger than the Earth.
While the Earth is covered with water and teeming with oxygen, this planet is composed of graphite, diamond, and several silicates.
This gem twice the size of Earth and eight times heavier. The owner of such a resource would be the richest body in the Universe. If, of course, was able to mine diamonds from depths of 55 Cancri e.
Remember Gliese 581? This "hell" that we visited earlier? She has a younger brother — Gliese 436 b, which is a burning cube of ice. The temperature there too, not for a vacation — 439 degrees Celsius. Why isn't it melting? On the planet a huge amount of water, just incredible. Gravity pulls it all towards the nucleus, so tightly clutching the water molecules that they can't evaporate. This is not the kettle to 100 degrees to boil.
Yes, it's just a piece of ice!
Only Evaporate the outer layers of water, so the planet is constantly shrouded in steam, but all other layers remain solid. Conditions are truly hellish, no oxygen in sight there — this humidity together with high temperature will kill any living thing, which in theory could arise. But let's we colonize the planet warmer?
Not so far from the Land (a total of 63 light-years away, think) is a planet called HD 189733 b. We still don't remember, so straight to the point — what makes it so unusual? The answer is simple: it rains almost constantly. It's just not the usual tropical downpour or a hurricane on the planet, falling precipitation in the form of glass. The fact is that the atmosphere is saturated with silica, and when there is "rain", the conditional drops melt in the fall and harden.
But the rain — it's only half the story. On the planet rages strong wind, the speed of which comes to 9 000 km/h. This is 10 times faster than the speed of jet passenger aircraft. So, it seems, leaves us with one hell of a planet — to get to a hurricane nobodywish.
Even here you can see the storm on the planet
As you can see, around us is full of planets, and they are all different. Unfortunately, even , depending on the activity of their home stars, could be incapable of supporting life. The other planets in turn, are very different from earth's size and surface temperature. However, it is likely that among planets found, one day, we will meet the planet with the same Land mass, size, orbit and the sun-the star around which it turns. But how to get there?
In the existence of some of these planets hard to believe
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