the oil Spill in Norilsk was the largest in the history of the Arctic
In late may, 2020 at CHP-3 in Norilsk due to the subsidence of the Foundation under the tank with diesel fuel on the land and in the river the Granary and Daldykan leaked almost all of its contents. 15 thousand tons of oil products got into the nearest rivers and streams, and 5 thousand tons of — in the ground. Reached before that on 3 June in Krasnoyarsk region declared emergency of Federal scale. According to scientists, the region was under threat of environmental disaster — most of the animals and the inhabitants of the ponds, most likely, will not survive this disaster. At the same time, unfortunately, spills of oil and petroleum products on land or water — not so rare: in the last 100 years such incidents have been quite a lot, and there are a number of the largest, which have led to environmental disaster.
By crash for Norilsk CHP-3 may 29, 2020 leaked 21 thousand tons of oil products. If we compare this figure with major spills, it doesn't seem so big, but nevertheless, you should not take this accident only as a minor problem. It can cause irreparable damage not only to the inhabitants of nearby water bodies, but to many animals on land.
River the Granary and Daldykan have become heavily contaminated with petroleum products
The First took the brunt of the inhabitants of the nearby reservoirs. The adults are still able to leave the contaminated area and sail away, but the young fish to save did not succeed. Will suffer a total of almost 40 species of fish, among which salmon, whitefish, Siberian sturgeon and grayling. Due to the oil film on the surface of the water then they'll have oxygen starvation. Many species of fish will simply cease to exist, not to mention other water inhabitants. Initially, the oil was only in the river Barn and Daldykan, however, soon reached lake Pyasino and the river Pyasina.the
After getting of petroleum products in the river Pyasina the liquidators of the accident was much more difficult to extract them. It is a river with a very rapid current and high water level. So part of the toxic substances quickly dissolved and settled at the bottom, and the other — rushed farther downstream in the Kara sea. Now fully recycled fuel became impossible.
the Liquidators are trying to stop the spread of oil on the river Pyasina, but the current is too fast.
The Problem is also in the volatility of petroleum products. Due to the wind they can reach remote areas, to penetrate soil and get into groundwater (springs). So it's not just aquatic creatures but also land — Arctic foxes, Arctic hares, polar wolves, rodents, reindeer. At risk and birds — ducks, geese, swans, waders. The scale of the defeat — a few tens of kilometers. And even if birds can fly further, after contact with oil they will still be susceptible to disease and will be weaker than their counterparts. Hurt even the people, especially those for whom the main source of food — fish. Catch her in contaminated bodies of water is impossible. But whether all will comply with these recommendations?
Yet, according to various estimates, from spilled fuel is collected only a few hundred tons, is one-thousandth of the total leakage. The most effective pond can be cleaned in the first days, the fuel evaporates rather quickly, and soon the water will not be visible traces of oil. But this does not mean that they will not be there.
Why do happen oil spill? Sometimes blame weather conditions, which damaged the storage tanks of petroleum products. And in the last century several such cases took place during the military action: one side just fired rockets indiscriminately on the ships of the opponent, and the pass will inevitably hit oil tankers. However, in most cases, the cause of these disasters is the human factor: a bad storage tank inspection for cracks and "metal fatigue", insecure and so on.
Let us Examine the largest oil spills in history, which have much in common with disaster Norilsk.the
This case remains the largest and the worst oil spill in world history. It happened February 28, 1991 during the war between the multinational forces led by the USA and Iraq for the restoration of independence of Kuwait. The accident was deliberately staged by Iraqi troops when they retreated from Kuwait — they considered her a vindictive military operation. The soldiers fired many oil rigs and specially opened the valves of oil wells and wells. Thus was organized the discharge of oil into the Persian Gulf. As a result, in the pond were about 1.2 million tons of oil and oil products.
the oil Spill in the Gulf led to the destruction of thousands of species of fish.
As if that wasn't enough, the Iraqi army whenthe retreat managed to set fire to oil wells, which managed to extinguish only after 9 months! Ecology of the Persian Gulf have suffered greatly because of this incident, killed tens of thousands of birds and aquatic life. Many animals died because of the dense smoke from burning wells. It even led to casualties — the pilots of the transport aircraft Saudi Arabia due to smoke are unable to land the plane, killing 90 people. If this had happened in the woods among the animals of victims would have been even more, but because of the oil depot placed in the desert, there are not many inhabitants.
Fires at oil depots in the Persian Gulf was extinguished almost 9 months
To eliminate the disaster took more than 10 years, during this time, Kuwait, Turkey and the UAE experienced the black rain from the remnants of petroleum products. This disaster is considered one of the worst in history.the
This is a spill has already happened unintentionally, but the consequences for the environment also proved disastrous — in the Gulf of Mexico fell almost 800 thousand tons of oil. The accident occurred 20 April 2010 because of the explosion and ensuing fire on an oil platform Deepwater Horizon, owned by BP, 80 kilometers from the coast of Louisiana. At the time of the explosion on the platform killed 11 oil workers, 17 was badly damaged. Also, a few people subsequently died in the accident.
Suppression of the Deepwater Horizon platform
The blast damaged an oil well at a depth of 1 500 metres, and all the oil rushed out to open waters. As a result, the Gulf of Mexico formed a spot, the area of which reached 75 thousand square kilometers (almost 5% of the area of the Bay). Many fish and birds died, the other species are still on the verge of extinction. Due to the fact that a lot of residents participated in wildlife rescue and emergency nature, were not sustained such severe damage, which could be at the inactivity.
the Effects of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexicothe
Another major oil spill also happened in Mexico, but much earlier — June 3, 1979. Pemex, which is owned by the Mexican government, tried to drill an oil well in the Bay of Campeche in the South of the Gulf of Mexico at a depth more than 3,000 meters. During the drilling accident caused by stopping the circulation of drilling mud, causing the oil could not maintain the optimum pressure in the drilling shaft. In the end, formed by the uncontrolled pressure in the water broke the oil that surfaced and caught fire. Drilling platform Sedco 135, which carried out the operation, also caught fire and crashed into the sea.
the consequences of the accident took nearly a year
As a result, In the Gulf of Mexico turned out to be 500 thousand tons of oil (yeah, it suffered notably). To eliminate leakage of used chemicals, which were collecting oil from the surface and could quickly retrieve it. However, finally the leak was resolved almost a year later — in March 1980.the
A month after the disaster in the Bay of Campeche there was another disaster is already off the coast of Trinidad and Tobago, is fully caused by human factor. a 19th July 1979 there faced two oil tanker — Atlantic Empress and Aegean Captain ("Atlantic Empress" and the "Aegean captain"). The accident Atlantic Empress caught fire and his long time could not put out, then several explosions and the oil from the tanker began to leak at a rate of tens of tons per hour.
a fire on the Atlantic Empress caused the collision of two tankers
The Second ship also caught fire, but he was able to tow in a safe place and to put out. The first tanker was burnt down and went under water. The crews of both tankers were killed in the disaster, most died of smoke inhalation.
This oil spill is considered the most ambitious in the history of shipping — about 330 thousand tons. Although the oil has not managed to reach the shore, the water inhabitants were irreparably damaged. Entire species ceased to exist.the
Not only in the open waters there was a similar disaster. So, March 2, 1992 there was a release of oil from the field Mingbulak in the Ferghana valley in Uzbekistan. One of the wells exploded, it could not be put out for two months, and was bottled just over 285 thousand tons of oil.
the Smoke that was recorded by the satellite during an accident in the Ferghana valley
The cause of the explosion, no one said the crash site was quickly surrounded by dams and the spill was stopped. However, it still is the largest ever on land in Asia. We can only guess how many animals died because of this disaster.
If the oil spreads on water surfaces, for cleaning scientists use burning, chemical, and natural sorbents, fungi and even bacteria. Also commonthe mechanical pumping oil: special pumps "rake up" the top layer of water and it is pumped to individual tanks. However, this method is not the most efficient because it allows you to collect no more than 20% of fuel.
Often oil on the surface intentionally set fire to — for example, when did the oil spill after the accident of the tanker Torrey Canyon in 1967 and the accident of the Exxon Valdez off Alaska in 1989. However, this measure is only effective in the early days, when the oil film on the surface of the water is still thick. Then to burn the oil does not work — the water can not do it because of the close proximity.
As soon As the oil film becomes too thin, begin to use chemicals — they communicate oil between themselves and under their own weight are lowered into the water column. This method of treatment is used in case of accidents on the high seas — this allows you to remove film from the surface of the water and not allow it to get to the coast. So eliminated the consequences of the accident in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, when exploded oil platform Deepwater Horizon, and oil are continuously fed into the waters of the Bay.
the worker removes the traces of oil from the shoreline in the Gulf of Mexico
The Problem with this method is that the chemicals are very toxic, and their application in shallow water is very dangerous because it can harm the ecosystem. Oil still gets into the living organisms and deposited on the bottom. Yes, the eye it is no longer visible, but what happens under water, it is terrible to imagine.
Alternatively, chemical reagents used natural sorbents — for example, the husk of rice seeds or sunflower chips of charcoal or sawdust. They act like a giant sponge. In this case, the environmental damage from the cleanup will be minimal, but the problem is that such sorbents are collected not so much oil as chemical. Scientists are constantly developing new methods of cleaning water surfaces from oil, one of the newest is a sorbent on the basis of expanded graphite, which gathers approximately 80 grams of oil per gram of sorbent. For comparison, natural sorbents can absorb no more than 5 grams oil to 1 gram.
While it is best to use sorbents along with microbiological preparations. So the sorbents absorb petroleum products, and micro-organisms immediately begin to recycle them. The resulting mass can be assembled, taken out and disposed of somewhere else.
Full clean up space pollution from oil using bacteria — they are sprayed on the surface contamination after a minimum of 90% of oil products has been developed. For this purpose, the dried microorganisms: microbial biomass is dried using sorbents or other means, the result is a powder with spores of microbes and living cells. Subsequently, they can be easily delivered to the place of contamination and apply. Some species of fungi are also able to "digest" petrochemicals, but raising them is much harder than bacteria.
For the last 100 years of major oil spills has led to environmental disasters
Even if you make it as soon as possible to eliminate oil slick on the water, most inhabitants of the pond will inevitably perish. However, if at all, to do nothing or act too slowly, under the threat may be a greater number of fish and other aquatic inhabitants. We are talking about tens of thousands of individuals who will die from a poisoning with petroleum products.
what led To the crash of oil on land? Here it's much worse. If the water to collect oil products is possible, land-based pollution of this kind can penetrate very deeply. And to get them out is not so easy. If the oil has gone no further 50 centimetres under the ground, it is still possible to collect sorbents. However, sometimes it passes through the upper horizons of the soil and rests on the layer of permafrost. The danger is that oil accumulates above the layer forming the lens, and spreads — already horizontally. Dig the soil to remove debris — is also not the best idea, it is possible to damage resistant layer of permafrost rocks or clay, which hold petroleum products. And the oil is thus rendered deeper.
oil Spills on land can be even more dangerous
A Lot also depends on the type of fuel that spilled. So, in the case of a disaster in Norilsk on Wednesday got diesel fuel. There are a lot of aromatics and carcinogens. Due to the fact that they are poorly soluble in water, easily removed together with oil. But that's more work.
To learn when the effects of the spill will be completely eliminated required environmental monitoring. It includes regular sampling of soil and water after Stripping the scene of the accident. The problem is that this measure is extremely costly, so few who do. But it should be. Well, more accuratelyto apply the mineral oil to such disasters has not happened since .
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