For all history of existence of the Earth people is constantly involved in fights with each other over territory. Even the caveman didn't want to admit to their habitat, what can we say about more recent times, when men began to unleash a major war with many victims on the one and on the other side. Territorial conflicts still going on, and in some cases even lead to military action (mainly in the middle East). Most likely, they will never end — certainly there is someone who will claim the place of another. But if the Earth is all clear (States have borders and they are regulated by the legislative acts), how this state of Affairs in space?
In 1967, a special document — "the outer space Treaty". This Treaty, signed in 1967, was compiled by the United Nations and remains today . It was signed and made official (ratified) 105 countries around the world. However, in space there is no "space police" and outside observers, so to fulfill his almost impossible. Therefore, the country, private person or company can just ignore the contract if you wish. The consequences of failure may include sanctions, but mostly just resentment and contempt from the international arena.
However, it is interesting that in the 50 years of its existence, the Treaty has never been violated. Although the practical problems appeared, they were always resolved in terms of the "Treaty on outer space", does it without breaking.
However nowadays the Treaty is out of date. Many private companies use it and even offer plots (!) on celestial bodies, type of the moon. Technically private companies like SpaceX or individuals can these territories to assign. They're not in the country. And many aspects still remain controversial and are not reflected in this agreement. Therefore, we developed the international rules for the exploration of the moon: in accordance with the new document of the country will be able not only , but even to establish the boundaries of their own territories.
"Agreement Artemis" () are a set of standards and rules for lunar exploration. In NASA believe that they will complement the existing "outer space Treaty".
It's a new dawn for space exploration! Today I'm honored to announce the Accords agreements — establishing a shared vision and set of principles for all international partners that join in humanity's return to the Moon. We go together:
— Jim Bridenstine (@JimBridenstine)
Below the main innovations that the U.S. offers.the
The scientific data Exchange with other countries;
The Advent of "safe zones" — this will be the borders of the countries on the moon. Other countries will have to respect those boundaries and don't invade without permission; the
Some provisions of the new rules refer to an already existing contract. For example, one of the most important points of the Treaty is that outer space should be used for "peaceful purposes" — weapons of mass destruction in space should not be used. However, the point about the creation of "safe zones" still contradicts the "outer space Treaty". In accordance with the document, the heavenly territory (the Moon or Mars, for example) is not subject to "national appropriation". In other words, no country can claim it. NASA wants that countries that have signed the agreement, respected boundaries, which will create on the moon other States. And, most likely, will be erected by the Americans.
U.S. astronauts to extract resources on the moon. NASA project
This document really needs, but it could hardly make exactly they say . In fact NASA put forward their demands in the form of a collection of rules, and other countries, well, you can either sign them or not. In this case, a very important international negotiations, which in the US seems to want to avoid. His dissatisfaction with those already expressed by the head of the Roscosmos, Dmitry Rogozin. He said that the state Corporation is ready to negotiate, but the document should be developed together.
Ambitious projects related to the exploration of the moon, could become a serious factor for the interaction between Russia and the US in this difficult time.
This opinion was expressed by Deputy General Director of the Russian space Agency on international cooperation Sergey Savelyev
— the Federal space Agency (@roscosmos)
I Understand why NASA wants to lobby for a rule book. First, the U.S. space Agency plans first to return humans to the moon in 2 years — in 2024. Hardly anyone can do it first, so NASA uses his right of a "pioneer". And in April, Donald trump has signed a decree on the extraction of resources inThe moon, which caused the dissatisfaction of the public in connection with the violation "of the outer space Treaty". The new provisions will help to resolve this issue.
Space Exploration, like most other major events in the history of mankind will be a step towards imperialism, colonialism and the General selfishness of the Earth relative to other planets. If space exploration will continue to be beyond the control of any system, the failure can not be avoided. Besides reckless space exploration makes people mindlessly use this space, polluting it — believes astrobiologist Monica Vidaurri.
A few years ago, the Chinese satellite was thrown into the atmosphere tons of debris, then India has destroyed its own satellite and sent even more debris into our orbit. Will a new document to avoid this? I don't think. If "the space Treaty" did not stop them, a stack of new papers hardly will change something.
Project space city on the moon from SpaceX
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