Can our galaxy to be inside a huge bubble?

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2020-03-28 06:20:11

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Can our galaxy to be inside a huge bubble?

We May live in a bubble. But this is hardly the strangest thing that you've heard about our Universe. Now, among the innumerable theories and hypotheses, another one appeared. The new study is an attempt to resolve one of the most challenging mysteries of modern physics: why are our measurements of the expansion speed of the Universe make no sense? According to the authors, the simplest explanation is that our galaxy is in the low density Universe means that a large part of the space that we see through telescopes is part of a giant bubble. And this anomaly, the researchers write, probably interferes with the measurement of the Hubble constant – a constant value that is used to describe the expansion of the Universe.

How the universe evolved?

Try to imagine how it will look like a bubble . It is quite difficult, as most of the space is a space with a handful of galaxies and stars, scattered in the void. But exactly the same as the region in the observable Universe, where matter is tightly bunch up or Vice versa is far from each other, stars and galaxies together with the different density in different parts of the cosmos.

CMB (or cosmic microwave background radiation) is thermal radiation, which was formed in the early Universe and evenly fills – allows scientists with almost perfect accuracy to determine a uniform temperature of the Universe around us. Today we know that this temperature is 2.7 K (Kelvin temperature scale where 0 degrees is absolute zero). However, upon closer examination you will notice small fluctuations this temperature. Model of how the universe evolved over time, suggest that these tiny inconsistencies in the end would create less dense region of space. And this kind of areas of low density would be more than enough to distort the measurement of the Hubble constant, as is happening right now.

How to measure the Hubble constant?

There are many theories that can explain the differences of the Hubble constant

Today, there are two main ways of measuring the Hubble constant. One of them is based on extremely accurate measurements of the CMB, which appears to be homogeneous throughout our Universe, since it was formed shortly . Another method based on the supernovae and pulsating variable stars in nearby galaxies, known as Cepheids. Recall that the Cepheids and supernovae have properties that allow you to accurately determine how far away they are from Earth and how fast receding from us. Astronomers used them to build a «the ladder of distances» to various landmarks in the observable Universe. This “ladder” the researchers used to derive the Hubble constant. But since over the last decade, measurements of the Cepheids and the CMB become more accurate, it became clear that . And the variety of answers usually means that there is something we don't know.

Thousands of galaxies in the lens of the Hubble telescope

Galaxy in a bubble

Some physicists believe that there is a «new physics», defining disparity – something in the Universe that we don't understand and that is the reason of unexpected behavior of space objects. According to study author Lucas Lombriser, new physics would be very problem of the Hubble constant, but it usually involves a more complex model, which requires clear evidence and must be supported by independent measurements. Other scientists believe that the problem lies in our calculations.

A Solution proposed in a new article that will be published in the journal in April 2020, is to assume that our entire galaxy, and thousands of nearby galaxies are in a bubble, where there is little matter – stars, gas and dust clouds. According to the author of the study, a bubble with a diameter of 250 million light years, containing roughly half the density of the rest of the universe, could reconcile the different figures the rate of expansion of the Universe.

If our galaxy, like thousands of other nearby galaxies are in a bubble, it may help to calculate the Hubble constant

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