Submarine — it is a masterpiece of engineering.
Beauty will save the world! There is a popular expression. That's only if you think about it, it is not so. There are so many insanely beautiful military aircraft that was created in order to take it away. To protect also, but still high price. And if the aircraft is more or less clear, and they can just in a dogfight to drive or accompany a potential target of the enemy, the submarine is much more of an ultimatum thing. Her task in the case of the use of weapons solely destruction. Once they hunted for the ships, and now you can erase from the face of the earth almost the entire state, but they often also very beautiful.
The First submarines appeared in the nineteenth century, but the sense of them was not so much, and in fact they only wanted to demonstrate the technology. Later they become a real combat unit. First petrol, then nuclear, but still very dangerous. There were even cases when they are applied not only for military purposes. For example, in the first half of the last century they were used by the German army in order to drown the peace of the British court. Not to mention that was the court, not the people who were allowed to leave the ship, but the fact remains.
The First idea of submarines suggested Leonardo da Vinci, but later he destroyed his drawings, for fear of ”submarine warfare.” However, already in 1578, the Englishman William Bourne described the Greenland submarine made of seal skin with the snorkel (exhaust pipe), who fought in the Black sea.
First submarines were approximately.
In Russia, the first submarines were developed under Peter the Great, but their design was also far from perfect. And for the first time in combat submarine used in the war for US independence (1775-1783), was called ”Turtle”. However, she was unable to harm the attacked ship. She had to fix mine on the bottom, but was discovered and had to blow it up just to escape.
Up until 1944, submarines were basically . Because of imperfections in design, they could not permanently go under water and used the immersion just in order to pass the dangerous area, or to prepare an attack. Later they gradually began to switch to more a long stay under water, and now it is not a problem, as the stock of provisions on Board a large, life-support systems (oxygen, processing and so on) are good, and fuel is enough for months of Autonomous navigation.
Dare to dive under the water in such a «pan»?
The Technology of nuclear power is too tempting not to use it for military purposes. I'm not even talking about the atomic bomb, the principle of which is also based on chain reaction of atoms and release of energy. Just in case a bomb, in contrast to a power plant, the fission of atoms uncontrolled.
At the far Autonomous navigation and on-duty nuclear boat is good that does not produce as much noise as diesel, are larger and can take months to be on duty in any part of the world ocean.
In the early 70-ies of the major players in the market was not difficult to guess, the USSR and the USA. They made a bet on the development of the nuclear Navy, and many succeeded. Especially, everyone would like to have more boats capable of carrying .
Submarines was the Foundation of deterrence during the cold war. The ocean is reliably covered them with her waters.
The Size of boats gradually increased and as a result, the title of biggest submarine in the world have moved from one country to another. One of the most famous American projects called ”Ohio.” These boats were capable of carrying up to 24 Intercontinental ballistic missiles. Response to the Soviet Union was a submarine of the project 941. Conditional name of the boat was a Shark, but it is more known under the name of ”Typhoon”. a About her today and we'll talk.
The Creation of boats of the project 941 was led by the outstanding Soviet designer of Sergei N. Kovalev. He was repeatedly awarded with state awards and unchallenged for several decades was headed by Leningrad TSKBMT Rubin. The staff of this Bureau was tasked to work on the Tsar's boat. Construction was carried out at the Severodvinsk enterprise ”Sevmash”.
Here it is the pride of the Soviet and Russian nuclear fleet.
A Second name of the boat — Shark — came after the General Secretary of the CPSU Leonid Brezhnev under the same title presented the boat to the delegates of the party Congress and the rest of the world in 1981. In General, we can say that bothnames well reflect the essence of this boat. It's like a Typhoon should demolish everything on your way and to be the most dangerous ”predator” in the ocean.
The Boat has a huge size. Its length is 173 meters, width 23 meters. Thus the total displacement is almost 50 thousand tons (three times more than the American ”counterpart”). Design is made a bit unconventional and instead of the usual parallel arrangement of two pressure hulls, it has sealed compartments of the capsule type. They are designed for the torpedo compartment and the Central post and the adjacent compartment .
«Shark» resting in the port.
Just in the boat 19 compartments, which are connected together, and in the case of ascent from under skinny ice bow part of the deckhouse has been significantly strengthened. Around the wheelhouse are provided with special sheets to ensure that it is not threatened even a thick layer of ice.
Maximum underwater speed boats of different design is not very strong and they were able to move at a speed of about 25 knots (about 45 km/h). But the Soviet giant was able to carry on combat duty for six months and dive to a depth of 400 metres, having a reserve an additional 100 meters.
In the fore part there were horizontal folding handlebars, and the drive was carried out by two seven-bladed screws, each of which was equipped with a 190-megawatt nuclear reactor and a turbine capacity of 50,000 horsepower.
Rest yourself, and IT floats past you…
The Crew of this monster consisted of 160 people, more than a third of whom were officers. The accommodation on Board was very relaxed, so to talk about the submarine. Officers were provided 2-and 4-bed cabins. For the sailors and petty officers were provided small cockpits, which were installed sinks and televisions.
In Addition, all premises supplied conditioned air and free from duty time, the crew could use the pool, gym, sauna and even a ”live” area. Not a combat machine, and a sanatorium. Tell us what you think about it.
Although the combat potential of the boat is also missing. In the event of a nuclear conflict ”Typhoon” can be simultaneously discharged at the enemy ”clip” of the 20 (R-39), each of which will be equipped with ten 200-kilotonne multiple warheads. This is enough for many years to make a desert territory, equal in size to the Eastern coast of the United States.
the way the Premier League «Typhoon» inside.
And that's not all. In addition to the powerful arms, the boat has more than twenty conventional and reactive torpedoes, and even MANPADS ”Igla”. In order to ”charge” the boat was specially created ship ”Alexander Brackin”, designed to carry 16 SLBMs (ballistic missile submarines).
At the moment to build three nuclear submarines ”Typhoon”. Two of them in reserve, and one is used for testing of the missile complex ”Bulava”. All in all, from 1976 to 1989, the stocks of the plant ”Sevmash” was launched six boats of this type.
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