Actually, I deliberately made a mistake in the title. Colliders — quite a natural phenomenon that often occurs in our Universe. face split in stars and black holes at energies that are even difficult to imagine. However, the pride wakes up when you realize that the person is trying to build something similar. Today, the research center, which brought us news of inconceivably tiny particles, awarded the Nobel prize, announced plans to become much more.
The European organization for nuclear research (CERN) have already had the pleasure to use the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world – the Large hadron Collider. But today, a report was published which deals with the design of larger and more powerful potential successor – Future circular Collider (FCC, BCC).
With the Large hadron Collider was opened subatomic particle the Higgs boson in 2012, and much more. But to explore the more elusive aspects of the Universe, according to many physicists, we need more new and powerful tool.
The Large hadron Collider has a length of about 28 kilometers, but its replacement will be four times more – up to 100 kilometers. This is enough to surround the entire city of Geneva.
Particle Accelerators are in need of such a size to disperse the tiny pieces of atoms to near the speed of light before they collide. The resulting collisions give researchers a better understanding of the laws of physics. Future circular Collider, with its more powerful mechanism and a longer tunnel, will be able to observe particles that are invisible to modern technologies.
It is Expected that the Large hadron Collider will be operated until at least 2035. But the scale of construction of its successor, so great that you need to plan ahead of time. The concept of the Large hadron Collider was introduced in 1984, approved in 1994, but opened only in 2009. Since the beginning of implementation to the last experiment, as expected, the history of the Future circular Collider will last for seven decades.
Today's report is a conceptual design for a Future circular Collider, a four-volume work, was working on 1300 scientists within five years. It describes several possible designs of the future Collider, which particle physics will have in mind, creating goals for research for the next few years.
The TANK already has given researchers a lot to work, but also left mysteries. Now the Collider goes through the planned upgrades, but the researchers would still like to get a better understanding of antimatter, learn more about the nature of dark matter and where to find her, and find out why the Higgs boson is much better than expected. These questions can answer only bigger.
The project of the Future circular Collider reveals several different potential aspects of an object. There will be a huge tunnel, which will allow thin beams of particles to move without having to pass through curves, which will be as close as the TANK. Will be a lepton Collider which will be able to push the leptons together. This, in theory, will provide scientists a more precise measurement of the Higgs and other particles that they are only beginning to understand. Also will the large hadron Collider, which will smash particles together at even higher energies.
According to CERN, the construction of the tunnel will cost 5 billion euros, plus another 4 billion euros will need to initial lepton Collider until 2040 and 15 billion large hadron Collider, which will replace the first and will start operation in 2050. The same approach was adopted with the TANK.
This is a huge sum of money, of course. Many scientists would prefer to invest in medicine or the fight against climate change. Money for the projects CERN received from 22 States and institutions that use objects. However, many physicists believe that the investment will be worth it.
Even Peter Higgs said: "We scratched the surface, but definitely more we need to open".
So, approve the construction?
When we look at the Universe, all its planets and stars, galaxies and clusters, gas, dust, plasma, we see everywhere the same signature. We see a line of atomic absorption and emission, we see that matter interacts with other forms of matter, we see ...
Scientists from the University of California at San Francisco used a system of gene editing CRISPR-Cas9 to create the first pluripotent stem cells, which are functionally "invisible" to the immune system. This event is biological engineering in the l...
From chronic insomnia help audio books, podcasts, and sleeping pills. If you load books on all night, they will gradually penetrate into dreams. And the funny thing is, sometimes you can even remember what he heard in the morning. Scientists have lon...
to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and save the planet from global warming, many countries are trying to switch to renewable energy sources. To do this, they build solar and wind farms that take up huge area of land. Scientis...
In 1962, American biologist James Watson won the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine for the discovery of the structure of the molecule . In my entire career of 90-year-old scientist had to give a lot of scandalous interviews in...
Some bacteria can generate electrical energy, and scientists intend to use them as an unusual property for electrochemical devices, fuel and wastewater treatment. As a rule, unusual bacteria exist in environments with low oxygen c...