Scientists are one, but very significant step towards the creation in the laboratory of yeast. They were able to generate five chromosomes of yeast. Yeast is essential for humanity, including for the production of bread and bakery products, which itself held long before all attention was attracted by the rapid improvement of digital electronics.
The Results of previous scholars work has been published in the scientific journal Science. A geneticist from the Medical center Langon new York University Jeff bokeh (Jef Boeke) reported that the researchers were able to learn more about the cellular structure of these simple, but very important for human civilization organisms. Artificial yeast may be more effective than natural, when in different applications — from the antiviral medicines to biofuels.
Jeff bokeh was part of the team of researchers, which in 2014 reported that she was able to synthesize the first chromosome of yeast. Now several hundred scientists from five countries are working on the creation of the chromosomes of the Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the integration of which allows to synthesize living cells. Since work on six chromosomes has been completed, Jeff bokeh hoped that the remaining ten will be synthesized by the end of 2017.
Each synthetic chromosome is based on one of those, which are characteristic of genuine Baker's yeast, but is modified with the aim of increasing its effectiveness. The researchers relieve yeast DNA from mutations causing defects, as well as those fragments that carry duplicate code the same information.
When researchers will be able to integrate fragments of synthetic DNA into yeast cells, fragments of natural DNA in these cells will be replaced by those that will create artificially.
Yeasts are eukaryotes, i.e., organisms whose cells have decorated the core. Like human cells, they store their DNA in the nuclei of cells. This study theoretically opens the way to the synthesis of chromosomes to more complicated than Baker's yeast, organisms, but it seems distant future.
To date there is some progress in the work on the synthesis of the 16 yeast chromosomes, which are maintained by schools of researchers from five countries. In yellow on the chart shows the 10 chromosomes, on which work is still in progress. The blue color reflects the six chromosomes, which are fully completed. The lower graph displays the molecular weight in thousands of heterocyclic bases of nucleic acids.
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it is known that changes in nature occur constantly: mutations lead to new species and even species, and is influenced by conditions in the external environment living organisms can acquire new properties.