Dogs have a remarkable sense of smell, but scientists have long could not understand, whether our smaller brothers to associate the fragrance or smell with the physical object. A new study says it is likely, however, that dogs form a mental picture of the goal in mind when you take the trail to the smell. For people to see is very important. Dogs, by contrast, rely more on their sense of smell and hearing to gather information about the world around them. They have not the best eyesight: acuity at four to eight times worse than ours. Moreover, their line of sight is only a few centimeters from the ground (depending on species), so their horizon is truncated. And, contrary to popular myth, dogs do not see the world in black and white, they just don't distinguish between yellow, red and green objects.
But their quality of vision kompensiruet powerful noses and ears. Dogs have excellent hearing, can detect frequencies between 40 and 60 kHz, while the human ear can hear in the range of 12-20 kHz. Dogs have 18 muscles in each ear, allowing them to independently Orient them as saucers radar; dogs can hear sounds four times farther than people.
And there is a remarkable sense of smell. Dogs have highly specialized organ in the nose, equipped with a 300 million olfactory receptors. They also have olfactory organ in the brain, which is 40 times more than ours. The end result is a sense of smell that is 10,000 times stronger than ours. "If to draw an analogy with vision, what you see and what I see at a distance of 300 meters, the dog can see over 4,500 kilometers and very good," says James Walker at the University of Florida.
This is All very well known, but we have no idea how olfactory information is processed and interpreted in the dog's head, in her brain. Simply put, we don't know, you know dogs that smell comes from the "good/desirable" or "bad/unwanted". Scientists have not been able to prove that dogs perceive the smells of certain objects, as strange as it may sound.
"I Think this is what I think many dog owners when they hear about our new study," says Julian Brauer, lead author of the new work, published in the Journal of Comparative Psychology. "We — the people — to assume that dogs have the picture but don't know that for sure. Behaviorists interpretation will be that the dogs perceive the smell as a stimulus. We have tried to show that dogs actually expect to find something specific when they follow the smell."
As a new study, dogs don't just appreciate the smell as "positive" or "negative". Working at the Institute of the science of human history, max Planck, Brauer conducted experiments that showed that dogs create a mental picture of the goal when they follow the smell.
For the experiment, the Brauer team tested 25 dogs that was previously trained as dog-sniffers at the service police for search and rescue operations and 23 untrained pet dog. Each dog gave two friends a couple of toys she would like to have. Scientists asked one of the two possible scenarios for the dogs following the trail of the smell of one of the two toys, dogs, or find the appropriate toy (normal scenario), or other (unexpected outcome). Each dog participated in one of two experiments of the four test runs.
In normal scenario, the dog did nothing unusual. But in an unexpected scenario, a dog came to the toy and hesitated a short pause, as if saying, "what the hell?". In other words, they searched for a specific object, and were surprised to find the other. After a moment's hesitation, however, they returned to search for the object that matches the smell.
"Although they had definitely noticed it, they kept looking for the smell, probably because of the toys which to use to create the track," says Brauer. This suggests that once the dog takes the track in her mind formed a mental picture of a specific toy.
Awesome effect was most noticeable in the first round and weakened with each subsequent. Police and search and rescue dogs return the items faster than the untrained (as expected), but by the fourth and final round they all fetched objects with equal skill. It is important to note that the "surprise effect" was observed in both groups.
What's important is behavioral research, and scientists cannot be completely sure that dogs do form an idea of the target in your mind and instead focus on the object or behavior to other factors.
"it's hard to imagine what it's like to be a dog and perceive the world mainly through the nose, making it difficult to create a good study that could answer all our questions," admits Brauer. Other researchers, she said, needs to explore the relationships between odour perception, search behavior, and cognition to gain a clearer idea of what dogs do.
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