The third detection LIGO shown as double black holes

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2017-06-03 11:30:07

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Three is the magic number. LIGO collaboration has produced the third observation of gravitational waves emanating from a pair of merging black holes, and they provided us the most complete picture of how these pairs are formed and how to register them. "The first was a novelty. The second was a confirmation that the novelty of the first was not accidental. Third — it is astrophysics", says a spokesperson for the LIGO David shoemaker from Massachusetts Institute of technology (MIT). "We are moving to a direct discussion of the populations of these objects".

LIGO detects wave forms that represent ripples in the fabric of the Universe caused by the mass transfer. The rotation of merging black holes distorts the waves, most of which are produced in the process of moving black holes and the subsequent collision.

For the first event we did not have sufficient information to determine the direction in which I rotate each black hole. Secondly, we had a little more information that indicates that each black hole is likely spinning in the same direction in which it moves in its orbit.

But the third pair of black holes, discovered on January 4, is tilted relative to the Earth differently, not like the other two, says shoemaker. This allows LIGO to learn more about the spin of each black hole.

This view showed that black holes in the new event spinning in the wrong direction that are orbiting each other. Consequently, they either rotate in different directions, either — which is unlikely — do not rotate at all.

the

Brothers, but not twins

"the Rotation, especially the rotation wrong, helps us to understand how these things are formed," says Carl Rodrigues from the Massachusetts Institute of technology. The study of the properties of these objects, not just their detection turns into "a new branch of astronomy".

Double black holes formed in one of two ways: two black holes are born together from a pair of mutually traded stars, or formed separately in a dense stellar cluster and later converge in the center. In the first case, the couple should rotate in the direction of the orbit how do binary stars; in the second, Rodriguez says, "they look in the direction that they want."

Although the second binary black hole detected by LIGO in December 2015, judging from our limited data, there were black holes that were born at the same time, the new black holes could appear separately.

At least one of them, it seems, revolves in the opposite direction during the orbit. The fact that this is different from the previous case indicates the possibility of both scenarios, although we need more observations to determine which of the variants is more common.

As a new binary black hole 3 billion light-years away — twice as far than others we saw — the gravitational wave must pass more distance before it reaches the Ground. This further distance will help us to find possible deviations from the General theory of relativity.

The General theory of relativity asserts that all gravitational waves must move at the same speed — the speed of light. Since the waves in this case so clearly do, even at a great distance, they maintain the cosmic rule of Einstein.

the

Expanding horizons

In Addition to the features that can tell us this particular binary black hole, it was a step to use gravitational waves to explore the General population of binary and other massive objects.

Ultimately, the LIGO will be able to see other types of cosmic events, but more of the detected events of the same type — in this case, binary black holes is also necessary for further scientific results.

Now with three discoveries, scientists have found that there is a population of binary black holes with a mass 25 times greater than our Sun. About this group we knew nothing prior to the beginning of LIGO experiments.

It May seem that LIGO is already adept at finding gravity waves, but the enchantment until lifted, said Laura Cadenati from Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, working at LIGO. "I know that we find them not the first time, but every time I feel the love that we did it again".

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