photo — Alaskan Malamute
We are used to travel long distances using cars, buses, trains and other modes of transport. But the inhabitants of Northern regions of Russia, due to the constant snow cover, still move around on the sled, which pulled by a few reindeer or sled dogs. Scientists already know that dogs are one of the first Pets that still help people while hunting, search and capture of criminals and the protection of homes and other valuable property. But in what period of time people have taught dogs for such a complex work as moving heavy loads from one place to another? Recently, researchers found out that it happened on the territory of ancient Siberia, and for a long time.
Long sleds for dog sledding are called sleds. The man who runs the sled is Kaur.
Figuring out dates and places where the sled dogs took the authors specially created for this kind of research . On the territory of modern Yakutia is the so-called zhokhov island, where about 9 thousand years ago lived in the middle stone age. During the excavations in this area were found , near which was discovered unusual items from the bones. Its form they reminded the scientists of the fasteners that use modern Eskimos for the construction of a dog sled race.
the fragments of the sledge, which was found on the island of zhokhov
The age of the remains of animals was estimated at 9.5 thousand years. The researchers extracted from the bones found in the dogs DNA molecules, which contain instructions for the development of various living organisms. These data were compared with genetic information 114 of dogs and wolves from different parts of the world. It turned out that from a genetic point of view found dogs are close relatives of the modern sled breeds like Siberian husky, Malamute and Greenland dogs. On this basis, scientists have suggested that humans started to use dogs for transportation over long distances in Siberia, about 9 thousand years ago.
Another representative of sled dogs — Siberian husky
According to the chief author of the study Mikkel Sinding (Mikkel Sinding), the results of new scientific work to refute the view that sled dogs appeared relatively recently — about 3 thousand years ago. Moreover, a new study proves that sled dogs are very different from the usual breeds. Basically, the difference is that they are less afraid of the cold and more hardy, so that they can run fast for long distances, carrying a heavy load.
Most Likely, these differences are mainly due to the food — the inhabitants of the Northern regions eat more fatty foods, and this is true even in the example with animals. Also have sled dogs more active blood vessels, so they are better able to absorb oxygen and retain heat in the body. Even with the lack of oxygen which can occur during prolonged physical exertion, muscle sled dogs are well reduced. Such features dogs of other breeds can not boast.
Greenland dogs — representatives of one of the oldest breeds of sled
His opinion about the opening and shared the other study participant, Vladimir Pitulko. He believes that the ancient inhabitants of the island of zhokhov took care of their Pets until the very end, even if they were old and sick. The use of dog sledge is still the place to be, but most people now are using the deer targets because they are stronger and more resilient. If dog sledding is part of, say, a dozen dogs, then a deer, you can use two times less animals.
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In addition, do not forget that technology is not standing still. At the end of 2019, I wrote that the Chinese robot dog Laikago Pro is unable to lift heavy loads — shown, as they pull over a car, while they sat a man. The cost of the robot is around $ 45,000, but in the future, such arrangements can become cheaper. So, 10 years from now we can hardly be surprised if the Eskimos are used to moving them, and sled dogs will be chilling with them on the sled.
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