The time? Five of the best theories on the topic of the fourth dimension


2017-02-06 14:00:08




1Like 0Dislike


The time? Five of the best theories on the topic of the fourth dimension

"Time is what prevents everything to happen at once." Statement by physicist John Wheeler fair summary of what makes the time, unlike anything else. This especially stands out on the background of the fact that our hunt for the most basic ingredients of reality did not bring us anything that could be linked over time. Einstein failed: he United time with space. But even before it was clear that the laws of physics work the same regardless of whether you are moving forward in time or backward. And it just does not correspond to our experience. What is the time? Here are five of our best theories at the moment.

Time... just have

After the General theory of relativity rapidly came quantum mechanics and adopted the familiar concept of time. The buzz of the quantum world corresponds to the authoritarian ticking hours that are outside any of the described particle system. However, quantum-mechanical picture of time is not persuasive. Take the equation of Wheeler — De Witt, describing the quantum state of the entire Universe. If this system is all that we know, then where would be the quantum clock ticking?

Time... just an illusion

Physicist Julian Barbour believes that we may . According to him, space and time, General theory of relativity, need to be separated. The only way to define the space, in his opinion, is to treat it as a geometric relation between the observed particles, not paying attention to the time. Each configuration it calls a "snapshot" of existing in the "space of possibilities". The concept of the Barbour exist only in these pictures. Time is not real, but rather a consequence of our perception — an illusion that appears because of the fact that the universe is constantly changing from one image to another.

Time... this is the arrow of entropy

Only here is a diagram of Barbour does not affect the more subtle question. All our physical laws are symmetric in time, which means, mathematically speaking, it might be equally forward and backward in time. With one exception. The second law of thermodynamics States that the entropy or amount of disorder always increases with time in the individual collections of particles and energy. The second law explains why a pot of water can't warm up, for example. The unique asymmetry of this law has led many physicists to think that only one-sided over time is associated with entropy. There is also a quantum version of the "entropy arrow of time" by physicist Sandu Popescu from Bristol University in the UK. Popescu and his colleagues have shown that we can address the increasing entropy .

Time... totally real, in the end

Perhaps the arrow of time entropy is not the whole story, says Lee Smolin of the Perimeter Institute in Waterloo, Canada. He noted that if entropy is constantly increasing, then the universe in the Big Bang had to be in a state of low entropy (high order). But there is no explanation of why it has to be that way. This returns us to the question of why our physical laws are symmetric in time. Maybe we're just wrong, says Smolin. Together with colleagues, he tries to find an alternative fundamental laws which incorporate the direction of time. The only problem is that his strange approach leads to the fact that laws change over time.

Time... deserves equality

John Vaccaro from Griffith University in Australia is experimenting with in order to put time and space on equal terms. Quantum mechanics allows a particle to exist in one place but not in another. Perhaps, says Vaccaro, it allows the particle to exist in one time, but not in another, not needing in the interactions that create or destroy it.

Attempt to correct the equation with this in mind, to nothing brought, because it violates the cornerstone of physics — law of conservation of mass. But, Vaccaro shows that from the wreckage of these equations allows us to recover quantum mechanics as corrected. Just need the experimental evidence supporting this idea. In 2012 the BaBar experiment at the National accelerator centre SLAC in California showed that the decay particles B-meson occurs in different ways at different times. Perhaps the ideas, Vaccaro is more than that.


What will be the shelter for the first Martian colonists?

What will be the shelter for the first Martian colonists?

Mars is not the friendliest planet for humans While the Red Planet is roaming rovers, researchers are pondering the construction of shelters and materials needed by future Martian colonists. The authors of the new paper suggest that we could use one ...

New proof of string theory discovered

New proof of string theory discovered

Just a few years ago, it seemed that string theory was the new theory of everything. But today the string universe raises more questions than answers String theory is designed to combine all our knowledge of the Universe and explain it. When she appe...

What is the four-dimensional space?

What is the four-dimensional space?

Modeling camera motion in four-dimensional space. View the world in different dimensions changes the way we perceive everything around, including time and space. Think about the difference between two dimensions and three dimensions is easy, but what...

Comments (0)

This article has no comment, be the first!

Add comment

Related News

How is SKOLKOVO? Report from the innovation center

How is SKOLKOVO? Report from the innovation center

This project was called the toy Medvedev, promising the beginning of a journey to the "kazaniu the oil needle", the Russian Silicon valley, a Potemkin village with unlimited funding. Despite political and economic instability, the...

Beneath the island of Mauritius traces of the

Beneath the island of Mauritius traces of the "lost continent"

Scientists have confirmed the existence of a "lost continent" beneath the island of Mauritius in the Indian ocean, which remained after the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, which began 200 million years ago. Part of the cru...

Bioengineers have created artificial cells that have

Bioengineers have created artificial cells that have "passed the Turing test"

Scientists have created an artificial cell that turned out to be so similar to the living that it was misled by these cells, with which they were placed, and the latter began to try to communicate with them. This kind of "option" ...