Why we hurt from hot and cold?

Date:

2017-02-10 14:00:08

Views:

2605

Rating:

1Like 0Dislike

Share:

Why we hurt from hot and cold? Source:

At first glance, the hot metal of the kettle and ice cube have nothing in common. But these two objects can cause pain. Strong heat and extreme cold have on the human skin is extremely unpleasant effects is that we know from childhood. But what we learned recently is that the brain perceives these almost the same temperature extremes. We often think that the skin and nerves which it contains, is directly responsible for the sense of touch, however, what biologists call "somatosensory system" actually includes a wider range of feelings.

Among them, of course, is touching in itself, that is, the recognition of mechanical stimuli of the skin, but also proprioception, i.e. the ability to sense the orientation and position of the body, and nociception, which is responsible for the body's ability to detect noxious stimuli. Feeling pain is the body's response to nociception.

Whatever the stimulus of pain — mechanical, chemical or thermal — nociception motivates us to get rid of it. Put your hand in the fire and you will feel a burning sensation that will force your body to pull the hand out of the fire as quickly as possible. It's not the most pleasant feeling — the pain — but it proves that your body is trying to keep you safe. Lose the ability to feel pain and will be very bad.

"the Main principle," says a neuroscientist at Duke University York Grundle, "is that sensory neurons that are found everywhere in your body, have a set of channels that are directly activated by cold or hot temperatures." Studying genetically modified mice for the last fifteen years, scientists have been able to prove that these channels are proteins embedded in the walls of neurons, is directly involved in the perception of temperature.

The best studied channel TRPV1 responds to strong heat. TRPV1 is normally not activated until the stimulus reaches a temperature of 42 degrees, which is of mice and men are generally seen as painfully hot. Once your skin reaches this threshold, the channel aktiviziruyutsya, activates all of the nerve and into the brain transmitted a simple signal: Oh!

"With the cold, in principle, subject to the same mechanisms," says Grundle, except that it appears the protein TRPM8, which is activated just when it gets cold, definitely not too cold.

Still TRPA1, which is perhaps the least studied class of these proteins. While the researchers found that it is activated in response to extremely cold stimuli, it is unclear whether it takes part in the process of detection of these stimuli.

Together, these three protein — TRPV1, TRPM8 and TRPA1 — allow the skin to determine the temperature range and the body to react accordingly. And since it's the nociceptors, the work of these proteins is to help you avoid certain temperatures, and not to look for them. Mice with defective versions of the receptor TRPM8, for example, never avoided the cold temperatures. This means that mouse — and maybe we are not actively seeking pleasant temperatures. Instead, they actively avoid extraordinary heat and cold, preferring warm, calm environment.

Although scientists have determined the thermal boundary at which these TRP receptors become active, it does not mean that they can not modulate. In the end, a warm shower can be unbearably hot if you burnt the sun. "It has been shown that this is because the inflammation of the skin makes the sensitive channel TRPV1," said Grundle, "lowering the threshold at which these nerves transmit pain sensations to the brain."

But the temperature is not the only thing that activates these receptors; plants too. You may not be surprised that TRPV1, which is activated emergency heat, is also activated by capsaicin that gives chili pepper its pungency. While TRPM8 responds to cooling strength of menthol in mint leaves. TRPA1 is also called the "wasabi receptor" because it is activated by pungent components of mustard plants.

In plants the chemical substances that activate receptors are usually activated by temperature? A molecular biologist at the University of Washington Ajay duck explains that capsaicin does nothing with TRPV1 in fish, birds or rabbits, but activates the same receptor in humans and rodents. "Maybe the plants developed capsaicin to any animals they do not eat, be left alone", but the plants were edible to other creatures. It is possible that similar mechanisms led to the evolution of menthol and mustard.

In Other words, these curious relations between plants and temperatures may reflect deep evolutionary history of plants rather than animals. Maybe the plants have found a way to crack the possibility of detecting the temperature in our bodies, and then forged components, activating pain receptors.

So the fact that we are sweating it out, eating adjika with horseradish, not connected with any property inherent in the pepper, but only with the fact that capsaicin and heat activate the skin nerves the same way.

Using a receptor configured to noxious stimuli, these plants have found a sneaky way to avoid the fate of being pornname... until we found a way to enjoy the painful burning spicy food and pour all the mustard. So next time when you notice that you just ripped a powerful chili pepper, take a moment and think that what is happening is the result of millions of years of evolutionary battle between plants and animals. A battle in which we, like, win (but not sure).

...

Recommended

Can genes create the perfect diet for you?

Can genes create the perfect diet for you?

Diet on genotype can be a way out for many, but it still has a lot of questions Don't know what to do to lose weight? DNA tests promise to help you with this. They will be able to develop the most individual diet, because for this they will use the m...

How many extraterrestrial civilizations can exist nearby?

How many extraterrestrial civilizations can exist nearby?

If aliens exist, why don't we "hear" them? In the 12th episode of Cosmos, which aired on December 14, 1980, co-author and host Carl Sagan introduced viewers to the same equation of astronomer Frank Drake. Using it, he calculated the potential number ...

Why does the most poisonous plant in the world cause severe pain?

Why does the most poisonous plant in the world cause severe pain?

The pain caused to humans by the Gimpi-gympie plant can drive him crazy Many people consider Australia a very dangerous place full of poisonous creatures. And this is a perfectly correct idea, because this continent literally wants to kill everyone w...

Comments (0)

This article has no comment, be the first!

Add comment

Related News

Proxima b: the planet of lost dreams?

Proxima b: the planet of lost dreams?

we Have some bad news for those who have already planned your trip to the nearest exoplanet to the Earth. According to a new study by the space Agency NASA, planets in the habitable zones of stars-class "red dwarf" — includi...

Under the glaciers of Alaska discovered ancient pyramid

Under the glaciers of Alaska discovered ancient pyramid

Global warming is undoubtedly a considerable danger to our planet. But there is this phenomenon another, more positive side. Due to the melting of glaciers, researchers had the unique opportunity to see under the ice, ancient pyra...

Astronomers from the Moscow state University has compiled a directory of 800 thousand galaxies

Astronomers from the Moscow state University has compiled a directory of 800 thousand galaxies

There are many directories, which contain information about various heavenly bodies, galaxies and stars. They regularly use, but they are not voluminous, informative and accurate, so astronomers often not enough information there,...

Volgabus company will allocate 200 million rubles for the development and testing of unmanned buses

Volgabus company will allocate 200 million rubles for the development and testing of unmanned buses

Not long ago, we about electric modular platform , the concept of which was presented by the Russian company . The versatility of the platform is that on its basis it is possible to quickly make a small but functional vehicles or ...

The Stanford students made beer 5000 year old Chinese recipe

The Stanford students made beer 5000 year old Chinese recipe

We know that our ancestors learned to make alcohol for many thousands of years ago. But to this day almost did not survive the original recipes of the ancient intoxicating beverage, and the surviving descriptions of their characte...

In Brazil discovered dozens of ancient structures like Stonehenge

In Brazil discovered dozens of ancient structures like Stonehenge

According to the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, recently in Brazil, in the area of tropical forests of the Amazon lowlands, a group composed of Brazilian, British and canadian researchers-archaeologists, ...

Created a tiny generator, producing energy from gastric juice

Created a tiny generator, producing energy from gastric juice

the Gastric juice has a rather complex composition including hydrochloric acid (its major component), bicarbonate, pepsinogen and pepsin, mucus and the enzyme Factor castle. Present in the stomach acid is able to effectively decom...

Study: sedentary lifestyles are not as harmful as was thought

Study: sedentary lifestyles are not as harmful as was thought

many of you have Probably heard that the so-called sedentary lifestyle – that is, when a person is most of their time (usually at work) holds in a sitting position – very harmful to health. So it turns out that these are just horr...

In the artificial brain was able to grow blood vessels

In the artificial brain was able to grow blood vessels

Researchers at brown University located in Providence, United States created laboratory , which is then able to grow a network of blood vessels. Now they hope that with the help of this achievement will be better able to study man...

Fire, water, air, earth: the most dangerous place on Earth

Fire, water, air, earth: the most dangerous place on Earth

Many of us, the weather was caught off guard, whether it's a sudden downpour on the way home or to work, or the scorching sun in the absence of a beach or any shelter. But it's all doable. There are on our planet where mother natu...

What do we know about prehistoric monsters lurking?

What do we know about prehistoric monsters lurking?

more than a hundred years of history about the lake monster called "Mokele-mbembe" of concern to researchers deep forests of Africa. What they found since then? In 1981, the message about living in the lake monster have attracted ...

American engineers managed to create a robot-bat

American engineers managed to create a robot-bat

fear Batman because American scientists are preparing you a decent change in the form of robotic bats. The world of science quite often in the realm of wildlife, here and this time employees of the California Institute of technolo...

Boston Dynamics made a jumping robot on wheels

Boston Dynamics made a jumping robot on wheels

Experts from Boston Dynamics regularly publish video demonstration of their new developments. Their robots, despite the frightening appearance, you can do various interesting things: run, jump, walk the stairs, to pick up and carr...

One of the oldest ancestors of animals and humans was similar to the

One of the oldest ancestors of animals and humans was similar to the "toothed bag"

Paleontologists joined the family album of humanity another picture of our probable ancestor. Perhaps the oldest found at the moment. Examining discovered in one of the provinces of Shanghai (China) 45 ancient fossils the size of ...

Space travel will change the shape of the human brain

Space travel will change the shape of the human brain

According to a new study of a group of scientists from the University of Michigan (USA), during space flight, the human brain changes its shape. To such conclusion the research team came after comparative analysis of the results o...

Dirty air can cause neurodegenerative diseases

Dirty air can cause neurodegenerative diseases

the Situation with air pollution in some countries is approaching catastrophic. Of course, first comes to mind is China, a place where people sometimes do not see anything beyond a few meters in front of him because of the smog th...

15

15 "untranslatable" emotions that you never knew

have You ever felt a slight "mbuki-muuki" is an irresistible desire to throw off their clothes as they dance? Or, maybe, a little "kilig" is a bit of a nervous, trembling feeling when you tell someone that you like? How about "uit...

Our galaxy not only attract but also repel at a speed of 2 million km/h

Our galaxy not only attract but also repel at a speed of 2 million km/h

Maybe we do not notice, but our planet revolves around the Sun faster than 100,000 kilometers per hour. Moreover, our entire Solar system is moving within the spiral arms of the milky Way at a speed of 850 thousand kilometers per ...

Discovered the first evidence in favor of the holographic model of the Universe

Discovered the first evidence in favor of the holographic model of the Universe

for Decades scientists consider the idea that our universe is (or once was) a gigantic and very complex hologram, in which all physical laws require only two dimensions, but everything around us operates according to three dimensi...

Created a metamaterial that is capable of becoming soft upon impact

Created a metamaterial that is capable of becoming soft upon impact

In recent years there are more various applications of so-called metamaterials. They have a number of unique properties not available «common» materials. And recently, researchers from the University of Michigan has deve...