Forty years ago, humanity sent into space two maps of location of Land. Copies of these maps were mounted on the hull of two identical space probes "Voyager", launched at the end of 70-ies. Now they are the most distant man-made space objects. One of the probes has already entered interstellar space, the other had a little stay in the Solar system, so he's catching up with his twin brother.
If the probes are ever intercepted by intelligent extraterrestrial civilization and information on the nameplates on their casings, it will be decrypted, it will not only tell, when this spacecraft left his home, but will also point the way to our little water world.
"We needed something to go along with "Voyager". Something that could tell where they came from and how long was this journey" — told me my father, Frank Drake, who developed the map.
Nadia Drake, the daughter of a famous astrophysicist, shared with National Geographic on how to create the map and what kind of response is received then and now.
This is not the card that we all used to navigate. Here instead of the usual North, South, West, East and landmarks such banal in the form of "third rock from the Sun" as the handles are pulsars. Fourteen, to be exact. In fact, pulsars are the rapidly spinning corpses of stars karapetrovic. Pulsars there are many millions of years, and each of them has its own unique code – a ripple or shimmer if you want, focusing on that you can calculate the location of an object in their environment.
"When Drake made a map of pulsars, and Carl Sagan and the rest of the team prepared the famous Golden plates, which were subsequently set to "Voyager", they are not particularly controversial topic of the pros and cons of contact with extraterrestrial intelligence", — said Kathryn Denning, an anthropologist at York University who study the ethics of sending messages to possible extraterrestrial civilizations.
"now, However, among scientists and other prominent people are starting to heat up debate about the wisdom of what we did not better for us just to continue listening space, and not to seek to be heard."
Created by Drake space targets to the Ground was placed on the Golden plates. Each of them contains different sounds of our planet. However, unlike the latter, the map itself was created much earlier, in 1971.
Then my father and Carl Sagan developed a message that was placed on the spacecraft "pioneer 10" and "pioneer 11", which was supposed to leave the Solar system after a visit to Jupiter. One of the components that he and Sagan wanted to include was a map that indicated the location of the Earth directly in the spatial and temporal coordinates. To scientists, the question arose: how to design a map that will be able to understand the extraterrestrials?
Ground time here would be pointless, because it is based on the features of the earth's rotation around the Sun. The same difficulty arose with the system of spatial coordinates. In space nobody will find if you will use directions like "up", "down", "East" or "West". Even the stars themselves changes over time, astronomical time scale. The explanation in the form of "the second star to the right and then straight until the morning" clearly would not have helped those who may find our products less than a billion years. Until the message reaches the recipient, for example, the star Betelgeuse, which can act as coordinate points, will cease to exist.the
So for my father, the decision was obvious – the pulsars. Discovered in 1967 the astrophysicist Jocelyn bell Burnell, these super-dense dead stars are a great beacon in the spatial and temporal coordinate systems. They have a very long lifecycle, which can last from tens of millions and possible several billions of years. Each pulsar is unique. They are all incredibly fast spin and create pulses of electromagnetic radiation, which makes their behavior similar to the behavior of the lighthouse. By calculating the delay between these pulses, astronomers can calculate a rotation speed up to an incredibly accurate level.
Over time, the speed of pulsars is slowing, in some cases, only a billionth of a second per year. Comparing the speed of the pulse at the moment at the speed specified in the map discovered, intelligent life can figure out how much time could pass from the moment the map was created.
"Pulsars – it's like magic. Nothing else in the sky not able to help so just calculate the desired indicators" — said Drake.
"Each of them has its own unique frequency of the ripple, so to define it, including those intelligent beings that may be very far away from us."
Drake suggested that if these creatures will be able to find out what pulsars are, they definitely will know where in the galaxy are these dead stars. Using the map, they could trace the path of movement of the probes, which ultimately would lead them to the Sun. After just three minutes of discussion, Sagan and Drake shook hands. The decision was made.
Drake drew a map of 14 pulsars. The original version of the maps created with the pencil is somewhere in one of the boxes at home. The length of the lines connecting each pulsar with the Central object, the Sun, shows how far they are from our star. In addition to these markers, it is also written in binary code, reducing up to 12 characters, the rotation speed of each of these pulsars, so any curious newcomers will be able to immediately understand what pulsars my father was chosen as beacons. And successful decoding of the map to some extent will tell you the address of the location of the Sun and the approximate time when we launched the spacecraft. Today, these data are cause for serious concern among some scientists.the
When we launched the first Voyager (which in fact is "Voyager-2", — approx. ed.), scientists had no idea of whether there are other planets outside the Solar system, not to mention whether somewhere there is another life.
However, thanks to missions like Kepler, we know that planets are quite common in our galaxy, and a reasonable percentage of these worlds can be the same as our Earth. This revelation has created a desire to send radio messages directed in the direction of promising star systems.
Against this opening also, any debate about whether it is wise to announce our existence to God knows who. Some believe that this idea is crazy and dangerous, given how little we know about what may be lurking on the "other side". Others suggest more to listen to the stars instead of trying to talk to them. But "Voyager" is already a foregone conclusion – they are there, they fly, they carry with them a map of our house. And if there's someone there, that someone will definitely be able to find them.
"At that time all the people with whom I had to communicate, were more optimistic and believed that if aliens exist, then most likely, they are friendly", — said Drake.
"no one did not occur, even for a second that what we do can be very dangerous."
So what are the chances that the cards on Board the "Voyager" reached the shores of the extraterrestrial civilizations?
"Very small," — said Drake.
"These things are moving at a speed of about 10 kilometers per second. At this speed the spacecraft will reach the nearest star just over half a million, half a million years it will take to achieve another star. And of course, they are not targeted towards any particular star. They just fly where you fly".
If extraterrestrial civilizations will have fairly powerful radars, they will probably be able to find the "Voyagers" from afar. But it's still very unlikely, says Drake. In other words, images, sounds and maps of the planet Earth forever and quietly float through space.
The Truth is that humanity almost a century to passively announces its existence through radar installations, radio and TV. And with the development of private space industry this stream of messages is likely to only increase, and who knows what kind of stars these messages can walk.
According to the same Denning, we all need to consider all the pros and cons before you declare its existence.
"In the end, we all live on this planet", — he says.
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