Last year, "Voyager 2" finally broke through to interstellar space, having more than 18 billion kilometers. This epic mission was possible thanks to nuclear energy technology which spacecraft worked for decades. The spacecraft, similar to a pair of "Voyagers", equipped with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). These engines rely on the fact that the breakdown of radioactive substances generates heat. Converting heat generated by the decay of plutonium-238 (P-238), into electricity, the spacecraft continues to work long after the sun's rays become dull sheen.
RTGs is also holding us back. If we want to send space ships — or people — further, faster, and more often, we can't continue to rely on the same nuclear technology that was used decades. How do we expand our coverage?
Our supplies of plutonium-238 is almost exhausted. The first batch was produced in the United States as a by-product of creation combat of plutonium-239 during the cold war. To investigate further, NASA should be much higher.
National laboratory oak ridge took on the task of its production in 2012. even a few grams was a slow and manual process. But last month, scientists from oak ridge announced that it has finally developed a way to automate and increase production neptunium and aluminium granules, is essential for the production P-238. Granules are transformed into precious P-238 in the process of pressovaniya in aluminum tubes with subsequent irradiation in the reactor.
The Creation of these granules was the most problematic point in this process, and getting people out of the equation also demanded a lot of experiments. "In many nuclear works, need to "taste and see" says program Manager Bob UEM. "You project, investing a lot of safety factors in design; me; see if it works the way you expected." After many years of experience in measurement automation and production, it worked.
Now the lab produces 50 grams P-238 per year, but in the near future plans to reach up to 400 grams a year. According to forecasts, the annual target of NASA 1.5 kg will be achieved within two years. The more we have a P-238, the more missions we will be able to send into deep space.the
NASA is also exploring the creation of a more efficient RTGs — advanced multi-purpose RTGs, or AMRITAH. But to make a breakthrough, you need to look for something new. Will eventually need a more powerful system. Only nuclear fission can provide such power in the short-term scenario, says David Poston of the National laboratory at Los Alamos.
Postcon — chief designer of the reactor for Kilopower, prototype reactor division, which NASA successfully tested last year. It can provide a long mission energy, perhaps even planetary outposts of people. "The way we've implemented it in real life, simplify everything," says Poston. "We had a lot of space reactors over the past 30 years, but they all failed. Mainly because it was too expensive". Currently Kilopower power is 4 kilowatts, but the researchers hope to push it up to 10 kW.the
Not so long ago was considered more futuristic ideas, including the detonation of atomic bombs in the rear part of the spacecraft in the so-called pulsed nuclear engine (obviously, he had a number of practical problems). But some people are still working to implement crazy ideas.
One of these commands works in Princeton Satellite Systems, which seeks to generate megawatts of energy using thermonuclear fusion. Yes, we have moved from watts to kilowatts and megawatts. You are probably familiar with synthesis — it is happening in the sky every day, thanks to our sun. Synthesis produces several times more energy than fission, but it is difficult to control.
Princeton Satellite Systems is developing the engine for the direct synthesis, which uses magnetic fields to generate current in the plasma and its heating up to 1 billion degrees Celsius. The team says that the thrust, which in theory will be able to produce a machine the size of a minivan, could cut travel time between solar systems by more than half (trip to Pluto would take four years instead of nine), and the energy would remain.
"If you have enough energy by the time you reach your destination, you can spend a lot of really cool experiments," says physicist company Charles Swanson. "One of the coolest things that made Cassini's radar images of Saturn's moon Titan. But the radar requires a lot of energy and limited in scope. The presence megawatt power releases options".
The Company got a huge amount of funds from NASA and the U.S. Department of energy, so someone believes in the success of this event. But let's be honest, success will come not soon. Fusion is in the early stages of the study.
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