Scientists have created a gamma ray burst in the laboratory

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2018-01-18 18:00:09

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Scientists have created a gamma ray burst in the laboratory

Gamma ray bursts, the powerful flashes of light — these are the brightest events in our Universe, which do not last longer than a few seconds or minutes. Some are so bright that they can be seen with the naked eye, like burst GRB 080319B, discovered by NASA's Swift GRB mission Explorer 19 March 2008.

But despite their intensity, the researchers do not know the cause of gamma-ray bursts. Some people do believe that it is the message of extraterrestrial civilizations. And here the scientists were able to recreate a mini version of a gamma ray burst in the laboratory, opening a whole new way to study their properties. The results were published in Physical Review Letters.

One of the reasons for the occurrence of gamma ray bursts is that they somehow are born in the process of ejection of jets of particles created in massive astrophysical objects such as black holes. This makes GRBS extremely interesting for astrophysicists. Their detailed study can reveal key properties of black holes, where the flash is born.

The Rays emitted by black holes, mainly composed of electrons and their "anti-material" partners of the positrons. All particles have antimatter, which are identical in everything except charge. Such rays must possess strong magnetic fields. The rotation of these particles in the field generates powerful bursts of gamma radiation. At least as predicted by our theory. But nobody knows how these fields should be born.

Unfortunately, there are several problems in the study of these bursts. Not only do they live very little, but — and this is the most problematic — and born in distant galaxies, sometimes for billions of light-years from Earth.

Therefore, you rely on something that is incredibly far, appears randomly and lives a few seconds. It's like trying to understand what made a candle with only glimpses of the candles, which from time to time lit thousands of miles away from you.

the

is the Most powerful laser in the world

Recently, it was proposed that the best way to figure out how to emit gamma bursts, to imitate them on a small scale in the laboratory by creating a small source of electron-positron beams, and to see how they develop on their own. Scientists from the U.S., France, the UK and Sweden have managed to create a small version of this phenomenon using the most powerful on Earth lasers like the Gemini laser, belonging to the Laboratory Rutherford-Appleton in England.

How powerful the most powerful laser on Earth? Take the solar energy that covers the entire Earth and squeeze it down to a few microns (thickness of a human hair) and get the power of a laser shot Gemini. Hitting laser integrated target, scientists have been able to release fast and tight copy astrophysical jets and build a super fast animation of their behavior. The result is striking: the scientists took a real jet, which extends for thousands of light-years and compressed it to several millimeters.

The first time Scientists were able to observe key phenomena that play an important role in creating gamma-ray bursts, such as the self-generation of magnetic fields which live a long time. This helped confirm some of the major theoretical predictions about the strength and distribution of these fields. Our current model, which is used for understanding gamma-ray bursts, is on the right track.

This experiment will be useful not only for understanding gamma-ray bursts. The matter, consisting of electrons and positrons, is an extremely interesting state of matter. Ordinary matter on the Earth consists mostly of atoms: heavy positively charged nuclei surrounded by a cloud of light negatively charged electrons.

Because Of the incredible difference in weight between the two components (the most easy kernel weighs 1836 times more than electrons), almost all the phenomena that we experience in our daily lives, stem from the dynamics of the electrons, which are much more responsive to any input from the outside (light, other particles, magnetic fields, and so on) than the core. But in electron-positron beam, both particles have the same mass, so the discrepancy in reaction time is eliminated. This leads to many fascinating effects. For example, in electron-positron world there would be no sound.

Why do we worry about such distant events? In fact, there is a need. First, the understanding of how born gamma-ray bursts, will allow us to understand a lot more about black holes and open a big window to understanding how our universe began. and how it will develop. Secondly, there is a more subtle reason. SETI — search for extraterrestrial intelligence — looking message alien civilizations, trying to catch electromagnetic signals from space that could not be explained naturally (this applies mainly to radio waves, but gamma-ray bursts are also associated with this radiation).

Of Course, if you send the detector in space, you will receive many different signals. But in order to isolate the transmission of intelligent beings, first you need to make sure that all known natural sources that can and should be excluded. A new study will help to understand the radiation of black holes and pulsars, so when we again come across them, we'll know it's not aliens.

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