CERN again "groped" new physics

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2017-11-20 16:00:11

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CERN again

From the mid to late twentieth century quantum physics has dismantled piecemeal a unified theory of physics proposed the General theory of relativity. Physics is a great subject to gravity, but only quantum physics can describe observations of small. Continues since the theoretical tug of war between gravity and the other three fundamental interactions, while physicists are trying to extend the gravity or the quantum physics that one could absorb another. The last measurement received from the Large hadron Collider, shows a difference between the predictions of the Standard model, which may hint at a completely new realms of the Universe, the underlying is described by quantum physics. Although confirmation of these anomalies requires re-testing, the confirmation would mean a turning point in our most fundamental description of particle physics to date.

Quantum physicists have discovered that the mesons do not decay into kaon and the muon as often as required by the Standard model. They believe that the increase in power of the Large hadron Collider reveals new particle type responsible for this discrepancy. Although the discrepancy can cause errors in data or theory, in this case, instead new particles improved TANK would be a boon for several projects at the forefront of physics.

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Standard model

The Standard model is well-tested fundamental theory of quantum physics, which describes three of four fundamental interactions that are believed to govern our physical reality. Quantum particles come in two basic types: quarks and leptons. Quarks bind together in various combinations to form particles like the proton and neutron. Protons, neutrons and electrons are known to gather in atoms.

"Lepton family" has a more heavy version of the electron — like muon and the quarks can merge into hundreds of other composite particles. Two of them, the lower and K-mesons, were involved in this quantum detective, which drew the attention of scientists. B-meson decays To K-meson, followed by the muon (mu-) and anti-muon (mu+).

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Anomaly

Scientists have discovered a probability of 2.5 Sigma, or 1 to 80 that in the absence of unexpected effects, that is, new physics, more deviant distribution than the observed, will be approximately 1.25% of cases, says Professor Spencer Klein, senior researcher at the National laboratory Lawrence Berkeley. Klein was not involved in the study.

Simply put, the frequency of decay of mesons to strange quarks in the process of proton collisions at the LHC turns out to be lower than expected. "The catch is that with 2.5 Sigma or data is a bit wrong, or the theory a little wrong, or there is a hint of something beyond the Standard model," says Klein. "I would put on one of the first two."

According to Klein, this deviation is inevitable, given the large amount of data that operate the computers in the operations TANK. "Petabyte datasets with the TANK and with modern computers we can produce large number of calculations of different quantities," says Klein. "TANK gave out many hundreds of outcomes. Statistically some of them may exhibit fluctuations of 2.5 Sigma". Particle physics usually wait for fluctuation to 5 Sigma, before sounding the bell.

This last abnormal observation was also not taken from the ceiling. "I wonder how these observations correlate with other anomalous measurements of processes involving B-mesons has been done in recent years," said Dr. Teong Yu, research associate and Junior research fellow at the University of Cambridge. "These independent measurements was less pure, but more significant. In sum, the chance that all these different measurements deviate from the Standard model to be close to 1 in 16 000, or 4 Sigma," he says.

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Extension of the Standard model

Excluding statistical or theoretical error, Tawang suspects that the anomalies mask the presence of a completely new particles, leptoquarks or new gauge bosons. Inside the bottom mesons quantum excitation of new particles can interfere with the normal rate of decay. In their study, the researchers concluded that the upgraded LHC can confirm the existence of new particles and make a powerful upgrade to the Standard model in the process.

"It would be revolutionary to our fundamental understanding of the Universe," says Tiong. "To particle physics, this will mean that we raise another layer of Nature and we will continue our journey to the most elementary building blocks. It will be important for cosmology, because it relies on our fundamental understanding of the theory of the early Universe. The interaction between cosmology and particle physics was very fruitful in the past. As for dark matter, if it arises out of the same new physical sector, in which embedded leptoquark, we could also find her trail."

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Knowledge is power

Until now, scientists with the LHC observed only ghosts and anomalies, hinting at a particle existing at high energy levels. To prove their existence, physicists "need to confirm indirect signs, but it needs to wait for the LHCb experiment will collect more data on the decays of B to make more accurate measurements," says Tiong. "We also get independent confirmation from another experiment, Belle II, which will be felt in the next few years. After all this, if the measurement of the decays B will still be at odds with the predictions of the Standard model, we believe that this is something beyond the Standard model".

To determine the existence of new particles, physicists have to produce them as you lower the meson or Higgs bosons, and to observe their decay. The fact that they have not seen such exotic particles at LHC (yet) means that they can be too heavy for their production need more energy.

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Quantum leap for the TANK

Search for new particles at the LHC does not depend on expectations. The probability of observation of new phenomena is directly proportional to the number of particles lost to collisions. "The more particles, the higher the chances that we will need to note the background of many other events in these collisions," explains Tawang. Search for new particles he likens to finding a needle in a haystack; it's easier to find a needle in a haystack, which is full of needles.

If the anomalies are confirmed, the Standard model will have to change. However, the increase and the magnitude of the energy, which will guide the next generation of colliders. It could happen to dark matter get. Then, combine all these interactions between different anomalies in a unified and elegant theory.

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