The Nature of lightning on Jupiter has always remained a mystery to scientists. However, thanks to the work of space probe "Juno" astronomers finally figured out that lightning on the gas giant have much more in common with earth than previously thought. However, this does not make them any less strange.
Data provided by the NASA spacecraft "Juno", showed that lightning on Jupiter may occur in the megahertz range, not only killertom, as it had been earlier. Based on the obtained information, two research groups have prepared their reports.
"Before the mission "Juno," lightning on Jupiter were recorded by vehicles either visually, or in kilogram wavelength range, but not in megahertz, which is typical for lightning on Earth. It was suggested many theories that could explain this phenomenon, but none of them offered a definite answer", — said Shannon brown, a scientist at the jet propulsion Laboratory of NASA.
In the harsh atmosphere of Jupiter is quite frequent are the numerous storm. Scientists have long assumed that the lightning in this case, there can also be. To confirm this phenomenon managed when past Jupiter in March 1979 passed the space probe "Voyager-1", showing storm activity in the gas giant. Subsequently, this activity was confirmed using the apparatus "Voyager 2", "Galileo" and "Cassini". First discovered by Voyager low-frequency signals was unofficially nicknamed "swish" because they resembled the descending sound of the whistle.
However, the scientists all this time wondered why lightning on Jupiter differ from similar phenomena on Earth and generate radio waves only in a limited frequency range. To solve the issue, it was suggested several theories, but none were never able to get closer to the answer.
In 2016, "Juno" under the full eight flybys of the planet, using radio-wave radiometer capable of detecting electromagnetic waves of a wide range of recorded 377 discharges. These outbreaks gave rise to radio waves in the megahertz and gigahertz ranges, as shown by their similarity of lightning to the Earth.
"it seems to Us that to determine the presence of radio waves in the megahertz and gigahertz ranges we managed due to the fact that the space probe "Juno" closer than anyone has been to these zips. In addition, we followed the radio frequencies that would be able to break through the ionosphere of Jupiter," — said brown.
Scientists also report that on Jupiter, almost all of the storm activity is localized at the poles, whereas on the Ground the lightning tend to occur on the equator. This is explained by the fact that tropical and Equatorial latitudes on Earth receive from the Sun more heat than the temperate and polar climate. The resultant warm moist air rises through convection, giving rise to frequent thunderstorms.
Jupiter receives from the Sun 25 times less heat than Earth, but at the same time, allocates a huge amount of inner heat energy. At the equator creates a balance between latest and incoming radiation, which prevents convection. At the poles the warm gases rise freely, creating conditions for heavy thunderstorms. At the same time, it is noted that most lightning occur in the Northern hemisphere of the gas giant. In further research of the planet, scientists want to find an explanation.
Second scientific article published by researchers of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, says that the lightning of Jupiter have more in common with earth. Writing and analyzing more than 1,600 radio signals ("Voyager-1" managed to collect data only about 167 mi), researchers found that at the peak of lightning activity on Jupiter beat frequency is 4 beats per second, similar rates observed on Earth. Data "Voyager-1" because of a small sample showed only one blow in a few seconds.
Together the two studies represent the most detailed picture of storm activity on Jupiter and provide scientists with important clues for understanding the complex dynamic processes occurring inside the dense storm clouds of the planet.
"These data will help us to better understand the composition and circulation of energy flows occurring on Jupiter", — said brown.
Recall that the probe "Juno" was launched in August 2011. The orbit of Jupiter, it came out in 2016, and July 2017 for the first time the camera took pictures of Large and Small red spot on the planet.
Recently it became known that NASA has extended the mission "Juno" for the study of Jupiter until 2021. It is noted that the probe will be able to make 23-of-flight through the upper atmosphere of Jupiter and perform a variety of tasks.
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