It is Known that leprosy is one of the affecting humans. But its origin is unknown. Scientists continue to find new information about leprosy, and it sheds light on the history of the oldest disease. Today we can say that the disease could emerge in Western Europe, and its major distributors could become squirrels.
Leprosy, aka Hansen's disease, affects the nerves, skin, eyes and nose. The maximum spread of the disease was from 12 to 16 century, but in our days it is reported about 200 thousand new cases annually. The disease is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. The origin of the bacteria remains a mystery, but the results of a study published in PLOS Pathogens, allow us to make some assumptions.
The Popular view considered opinion on the appearance of the disease in East Africa or the middle East and the spread of migration and trade routes. According to a new study, the outbreak of the disease could be medieval Europe. There is no evidence, but the authors found 10 different strains of leprosy in Western Europe.
The Cemetery Odense SV. Jorgen in Denmark has existed since 1270 in 1560. Mainly it fell under the scope of researchers from various European institutions. In total, the researchers analyzed the remains of 90 people buried in Europe since 400 years BC to 1400 years. Each of the analyzed remains showed signs of skeletal deformity, which talked about the leprosy.
As a result of working with these remains was identified, retrieved and reconstructed 10 genomes of bacteria, Mycobacterium leprae. Some of them were already known to science, but previously in Europe it was found only two strains. It is impossible to say with certainty that Europe has become a hotbed of the spread of leprosy, but a variety of found genomes hints at it.
In addition, the oldest of the found strains of leprosy discovered in the remains of a man who lived in England between 415 and 545 BC, very similar to the strain that occurs in modern red squirrels. They are carriers of the strain that had ceased to impress the Europeans more 700 years ago. This gives rise to the hypothesis that whites and trade their fur was a factor in the spread of leprosy in medieval Europe.
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