Will there ever be an artificial intelligence with consciousness?


2017-12-27 20:00:10




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Will there ever be an artificial intelligence with consciousness?

Forget about modern modest achievements in the field of artificial intelligence, such as self-driving cars. Actually everyone is waiting for something else: a machine that is aware of their existence and the environment and which can handle massive amounts of data in real-time. It would be possible to send in a dangerous mission in space or on the battlefield. She could cook, clean, wash, iron, to carry people and even keep the company when there were no other people.

The most advanced machines could replace people literally in all workplaces. It would have saved humanity from black labor, but also would shake a public basis. Life without work, turned into rest, may become unbearable.

Conscious of the machine also raises disturbing legal and ethical issues. Whether a conscious machine is to obey the law and be responsible for their actions if they cause someone pain, or if something goes wrong? Imagine a more scary scenario: if the machines rebel against us and destroy humanity? If Yes, then they will represent the culmination of evolution.

As Subhash, Professor of electrical engineering and computer science, working in the field of machine learning and quantum theory, argues that researchers as to whether conscious machines are ever to exist, divided. Also discuss whether you can or can not be called a machine is "conscious", if we think about people or about some animals. Some of the issues associated with the technology; others have to do with what consciousness really is.


do you need one of awareness?

Most computer scientists believe that consciousness is a characteristic that appears with the development of technology. Others believe that consciousness involves accepting new information, storing and retrieving old information, and cognitive processing all of this in perceptions and actions. If so, one machine in the highest degree conscious. They will be able to extract more information than even people, to keep more libraries have access to vast databases in milliseconds and count it all in the decisions more complicated and more logical than ever could afford.

On the other hand, remain physicists and philosophers who say that human behavior is more than just the sum of its parts, and it is impossible to comprehend the machine. Creativity, for example, and the sense of freedom possessed by the people seem to be unrelated to logic or calculations.

However, there are other opinions about consciousness and whether a machine ever find.


the Quantum point of view

One of the points of view about consciousness is derived from quantum theory, one of the most tested theories in physics. According to the classical Copenhagen interpretation, consciousness and the physical world are mutually reinforcing aspects of one reality. When man sees something, conducts experiments, some aspects of the physical world is changing under the influence of human consciousness. Since the Copenhagen interpretation takes consciousness as a given and does not attempt to derive it from physics, consciousness in this interpretation exists in itself — but it requires brains to become real. This view was popular among the pioneers of quantum theory such as Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg and Erwin schrödinger.

The Interaction between mind and matter leads to paradoxes that remain unresolved after 80 years of disputes. A well known example of such disputes is the paradox of schrödinger's cat, where the cat is in a situation in which he or girt or dead — and the very act of observation makes the output unambiguous.

The Opposite point of view is that consciousness is born from biology, as the biology is born out of chemistry, which, in turn, is born from physics. This concept of consciousness is satisfied with neuroscientists who believe that mental processes are identical to States and processes of the brain. Also it is consistent with one of the relatively new interpretation of quantum theory — the "many-worlds" interpretation in which observers are part of mathematical physics.

Philosophers of science consider that modern conceptions of quantum mechanics on consciousness have Parallels in ancient philosophy. For example, according to Vedanta, consciousness is the fundamental basis of reality as the physical universe.

Other concepts are more similar to Buddhism. Although the Buddha preferred not to wonder about the nature of consciousness, his followers claimed that mind and consciousness arise from the void or nothing.


the Copenhagen interpretation of consciousness and scientific discoveries

Scientists are also studying whether consciousness is a computational process. Some scholars argue that the creative moment is not completed with deliberate calculation. For example, dreams or visions, as expected, inspired by Elias Howe in 1845 on the consciousness of the modern sewing machine and the opening by August von stradonitz structure of benzene in 1862.

Powerful evidence in favor of the Copenhagen interpretation of consciousness was the life of Indian mathematician self-taught of Srinivasa Ramanujan who died in 1920 at the age of 32 years. His notebook, which was lost and forgotten for 50 years, and then published in 1988, contained several thousand form without evidence in different areas of mathematics which were far ahead of their time. The methods by which he found his formula, is also unknown. However, the case is not reliable. What is more important.

The Concept of the Copenhagen interpretation of consciousness raises the question of how it is connected with matter, and how matter and mind affect each other. In itself, the consciousness cannot make physical changes in the world, but might affect the likelihood of the evolution of quantum processes. The act of observation can freeze and even influence the movement of the atoms, as proved by physics Cornell University in 2015. This may well explain the interaction of matter and mind.


Mind and self-organizing systems

Perhaps the phenomenon of consciousness requires a self-organizing system, like the physical structure of the brain. If so, modern cars are far behind.

Scientists do not know whether adaptive self-organizing machines to be as complicated as the human brain; we do not have enough mathematical theory of computation for such systems. Perhaps only biological machines can be quite creative and flexible. But then it says that people will soon start work on a new biological structures that are — or can become — conscious.



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