In 2016, when the FDA turned on the green light for clinical trials of metmorfin — a drug that increases life expectancy by 40% in animal models, it became clear that a paradigm shift occurs in our attitude to aging and life expectancy. Aging is still an inevitable part of life — can be disease. And like a disease, it can be "treated" — to delay, stop or even reverse — the presence of suitable medicines.
The FDA Decision was the culmination of a number of many studies of animal — and quite successful — the aim of which was to reverse the disintegration of tissues from old rodents. The blood of the young, metmorfin and sinaitici — drugs that destroy the "flowing" of the old cells — reset my aging bones, hearts and brains of older members of the family of rodents. And they didn't just healthier — they live longer.
Due to the numerous methods of treatment associated with diseases of old age and enduring interest (and funding) from the private sector, momentum in this area does not disappear. When are we going to fight old age once and for all?
Not so fast, says Dr. Paul Nelson and his colleague Joanna Mazel from the University of Arizona.
Applying the concept of cellular evolution to the inhabitants of our bodies, scientists have constructed a mathematical model that studies the behavior of the cells with aging. And the news isn't good.
With the aging population of healthy cells is depleted. Some gradually lose their normal function stop dividing and enter the state zombipodobnyh become senescent. Others mutate, gaining the ability to divide and multiply uncontrollably, becoming cancerous.
As it turned out, getting rid of both types of problem cells impossible.
"Mathematically, aging is inevitable — that is inevitable in its essence. There is no logical, theoretical and mathematical possible to avoid it," says Mazel. Their work, scientists published in PNAS.the
Our cells as the main characters dystopian: they are born in the harsh society in which everyone will play their part, and as you age and loss of functions as a clock mechanism, they follow a genetic program that tells them to commit suicide for a higher purpose — the good of the organism which they constitute.
In a sense, these cells live in a police state in a constant state of struggle: healthy cells fight ageing for space and food, so that the society — tissues and organs — controlled by the healthy members, and works perfectly. The life of these aging cells — only a small price.
But sometimes senescent cells resist. Changing the expression of genes, they have the opportunity to share and spread. These cancer cells cheat the system: instead of cooperation for a higher goal, they all harm the body inhabited.
At some point, a multicellular organism like a human will get as senescent cells and cancer, explained the authors.the
Because each cell is fed its own set of expressed genes — genes that become proteins, we can consider them as a society of different people in a state of intense competition.
Just as scientists are studying how genetic changes in species lead to evolution, scientists can also use the same basic principles to monitor the behavior of cells when they are confronted with a changing environment, for example, as we age.
"When people are trying to answer the question: "why have evolved to aging?", they usually ask: "why do we have genes that cause us to age?". This question assumes that there may be genes that will not allow us to age", and individual cells can have the desired combination of genes that will help keep them healthy and immortal, explain the authors.
The Modern evolutionary theory of aging implies that aging can be stopped if competition is strong enough to eliminate the unhealthy and dangerous cells that are senescent and cancer.
In Other words, scientists have suggested that we age because the pressure of natural selection is not evolution at the cellular level is not doing its job.
It is intended to test the authors.the
The Scientists began with a simple idea: the cells can't be both senescent and cancer for a long time. "Cancer mutations represent changes in traits that regulate the cell cycle and cause the cell to break the rules and share, when it should not, or refuse to die when it should be", they say.
These mutations increase the resistance of the cells, but reduces its ability to cooperate — in the end, cancer cells are not very well.
In contrast, mutations that lead to senescents, for the most part interfering with the cell's metabolism, causing it to stop growth. Aging cells lose their vitality, but dying, they cooperate to the end.
To see how competition changes the trajectory of the evolution of cells, the researchers used a General, abstract mathematical system, which showed how cells develop over time depending on their current state.
For example, in aging cells accumulate concentrations of protein, which reduces their overall function and health. This and other adverse events lead to changes in the level of resistance and cooperation of cells, which in turn affects the health and lifespan of an organism.
Nelson and Mazel't think mutations are good. An important assumption in our model is that the body will deteriorate with age, they say. Some scientists have suggested that if the tools repair the cells will be strong enough, a perfectly healthy genome could be maintained indefinitely, but these repair mechanisms themselves will inevitably deteriorate.
The Solution of this model leads to the "inconvenient truth": the competition is between the cells — it is a double-edged sword, but the lack of competition leads to a steady degradation.
When cells compete for resources, senescent cells are effectively destroyed and replaced with healthy, but mutations that lead to cancer spread. This leads to a deterioration in the health of the body, since the cooperation is reduced.
If cells do not compete — for example, in tissues where they are completely matured and stopped dividing, like neurons — unhealthy cells cannot be replaced, and the body becomes worse because it is filled with old, non-functional cells.
So, "competition or lack thereof between the cells can deliver us either from cancer or from senescent cells, but not from both. And as long as you keep a problem under control, the other gets worse," he said.the
If you are depressed, it is not so bad.
Although the model of scientists says that aging is inevitable, it does not exclude the possibility of slowing down the process.
"we probably have many harmful traits that lead to aging and premature death," and the taming of these traits can "radically" to delay the process, though not eliminate it completely, scientists say. Their theory can even help in the fight against aging.
Take sinaitici, for example, which target and kill old cells-a zombie. Although studies of rodents with the use of these drugs have not documented an increase in the number of cancer cases, the risk remains. The scientists ' model shows that such treatment will lead to a temporary reduction of symptoms of aging, followed by an increased risk of developing cancer, because you just encouraged a bunch of cells to start proliferation.
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