The Theory of emergence (emergence) is a new physical model, currently being developed by the Los Angeles group of scientists. The task of the theory closely, but just to weave together quantum mechanics, General and special relativity, the standard model and other fundamental theories of physics in a complete, fundamental picture of the discretized self-fulfilling Universe.
The basis of the formalism of the physical theory of emergence is the concept, is fast finding a place in the community of theoretical physicists: all of reality consists of information. What is information? Information — this is the value passed to the characters. Languages and codes are groups of such symbols, which convey meaning. Different possible location of the symbols are governed by rules. The language user makes an arbitrary choice as to how to arrange these symbols to produce meaningful value, in accordance with the rules. Consequently, the existence of information should imply someone who chooses, or a form of consciousness that it was updated.
We identify two classes of characters. One class contains those symbols, which subjectively represent something other than the characters themselves. For example, form two intersecting diagonal lines ("X") can represent the mathematical concept of multiplication, an English letter or a kiss (as accepted abbreviation in English). The shape of the letters "To-From" can represent a certain animal that we all know and love, but also may present and something else if we want. The second and perhaps more fundamental class of symbols are the symbols that represent the low subjectivity. Example — the shape of a square, representative sample in the form of a square. This geometric language using geometrical symbols can Express a geometry value.
Experimentally observable reality is geometric on all scales, from the Planck level to the largest structures. Theoretical physicists hypothesize that brand geometric language or code that uses geometric symbolism, represents a fundamental way in which the value is expressed in our physical reality. To this we shall return.
The Central feature of reality, showing geometrical behavior, that all fundamental particles and forces in nature including gravity, can be transformed into each other in the process of so-called gauge transformation. The symmetry of these transformations it is possible to present exactly corresponding to the vertices in 8-dimensional polytope, the E8 lattice. However, we do not live in an 8-dimensional universe. Experimental data show that we live in a universe consisting only of three spatial dimensions.
What kind of geometric language or code, in this case, could Express the geometric three-dimensional reality, which is deeply connected with the 8-dimensional lattice E8?
Scientists believe that the answer lies in the language and mathematics of quasicrystals. Quasicrystal is an aperiodic, but not a random pattern, scheme. Quasicrystal in any particular dimension is created by projection of a crystal is a periodic pattern of higher dimensions to low. For example, imagine the projection of 3-dimensional chess Board or a cubic grid made of equally shared cubes of equal sizes for the 2-dimensional plane at a certain angle. This 3-dimensional cubic lattice is a periodic pattern that can endlessly be stretched in all directions. 2-dimensional projected object is not a periodic pattern. It is distorted because of the projection angle and contains not one form that is repeated endlessly, as in a 3-dimensional crystal, and a finite number of different forms (protophilic), which is oriented in a certain way among themselves, are subject to certain rules and laws and fill the entire two-dimensional plane in all directions.
Analyzing the 2-dimensional projection, in the presence of a suitable mathematical and trigonometric tools, you can restore the "parent" object in 3D (in this example, the crystal of the cubic lattice). A famous example of 2-dimensional quasicrystal is a mosaic of Penrose that Roger Penrose invented in the 1970-ies, where 2-dimensional quasicrystal is created by projection of 5-dimensional cubic lattice on a 2-dimensional plane.
The Theory of emergence focuses on projecting the 8-dimensional E8 crystal of 4 - and 3-dimensional space. When the underlying 8-dimensional E8 lattice cell (shape with 240 vertices, called "polyhedron Gosset") is projected into 4D, you create two identical 4-dimensional shapes of different sizes. The ratio of their sizes is the Golden ratio. Each of these pieces is constructed of 600 3-dimensional tetrahedron rotated from each other at an angle based on Golden ratio. Scientists call this 4-dimensional form of "Cell 600". These forms interact in a certain way (cross 7 ways associated with the Golden ratio, and "kiss" in a certain way) to form the 4-dimensional quasicrystal. Taking a 3-dimensional subspace of 4-dimensional quasi-crystals and turning them from each other at a certain angle, we form a 3-dimensional quasicrystal, which is protoplasm only one type: 3-dimensional tetrahedron.
On the TV screen or computer monitor smallest, indivisible unit is a 2-dimensional pixel. In our three-dimensional quasicrystalline reality tetrahedron is the smallest indivisible unit. Three-dimensional pixel reality, if you will. Each tetrahedron is the smallest possible three-dimensional shape that can exist in this reality: the length of each edge is the Planck length (the shortest length, known in physics), which is 1035 times smaller than a meter. These three-dimensional pixels are combined with each other according to specific geometric rules, filling all the space.
2-dimensional screen pixels never move. They just change the brightness and color, and the illusion of value (as a picture) to create combined values. Similarly, the tetrahedra in the three-dimensional quasicrystal are never moved. Instead, they operate as a binary language: at any time, each tetrahedron can be chosen by the operator code "on" and "off". If he's on, he can be in one of two States: "turn left" or "turn right."
Imagine one frozen moment in time in the universe. Let's call this point "point 1" to illustrate. In a time of 1-dimensional quasicrystal, filling the entire universe, is in "condition 1", and in this state, some of the tetrahedra is enabled, some disabled, some turned left, some right. Now imagine the next frozen moment in time "moment 2". At the moment 2 quasicrystal is in the "state 2". In this new state, many tetrahedrons are in the state different from their state in time 1. Now imagine a hundred such moments. Now imagine all of these frozen moments.
If you remember the movie, the moving image consists of a single, still frames that are shot and projected at a certain speed (24 frames per second in most modern movies). In the model of scientists one second contains 1044 still frames. Many patterns these patterns occur on frames 3-dimensional quasicrystal. These patterns become more meaningful and challenging with time. Gradually, the quasi-crystals have forms reminiscent of particles and acting as they are. In particular, one of the many interesting predictions of the theory of emergence involves a special pixel structure of the electrons — the particles that are now considered dimensionless, although unproven. Over time, these particles take more complex forms, until the form known to us a reality.
The Theory examines the emergence of space-time within space-time model of Einstein, when the future and past exist simultaneously in the same geometric object. Scientists consider this object as a system in which all the frames of space-time interact with all other frames constantly. In other words, among all points in time is constant, dynamic, causal loop relationships, when the past influences the future, and the future affects the past.
They believe the consciousness of both emergent and fundamental. In its fundamental form, the consciousness exists inside each tetrahedron/pixel in three-dimensional quasicrystal in the form of so-called species of vectors. These species vectors can represent microscale observer in traditional quantum mechanical sense. These observers actualize the reality, making ultrafast elections to the Planck scale binary state of pixels (on, off, left, right) at each time point. This fundamental, primitive, but at the same time very sophisticated form of consciousness directs the quasicrystalline point patterns space in the direction of increasing significance. Eventually consciousness expands to higher degrees of order, like nature and life, known to us. Life and consciousness from this point continue to grow, expanding to all corners of the universe. Imagine how people will one day fill the trillions of galaxies, their immediate network of communications and a high level of consciousness will grow into a giant neural network universal scale, a kind of collective consciousness. Is the collective consciousness hides fundamental, "primitive" consciousness which nourishes quasicrystal, which occurs.
Creates And B.
B is created.
In physics there are no known laws that establish an upper limit on what percentage of the Universe can expone...
Scientists from the University of Wollongong in collaboration with colleagues from the Chinese University Beihang, University Nankai and the Institute of physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have successfully created two-dimensional e-lattice k...
In recent weeks, the official NASA representatives were actively promoting the proposed "Gateway", which will serve as a space station on a remote orbit, near the moon. The Agency has proposed that intermediate step, instead of returning directly to ...
using the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST), which is called Chinese "artificial sun", the physicists were able to heat plasma to 100 million degrees Celsius (which is 6 times hotter than the core of our star) and reach a heating o...
Despite the fact that mathematics often called the fundamental science, she often doesn't get enough respect when scientific discovery. But the contribution of mathematics and statistics is very important and transformed whole are...
Time is a strange thing. We used to count the hours, but the Universe is not some main clocks and dials, so we can experience time differently, depending on how we move or how we are affected by gravity. Physicists have tried to u...
Scientists are one, but very significant step towards the creation in the laboratory of yeast. They were able to generate five chromosomes of yeast. Yeast is essential for humanity, including for the production of bread and bakery...