The measurement values of the speed of expansion of the Universe has become even more complicated

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2017-01-28 10:30:07

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The measurement values of the speed of expansion of the Universe has become even more complicated

We still do not know everything about the Universe, but we do know that gravity existing in it, is the phenomenon that allows the Universe to remain a single entity. Moreover, about 85 percent of gravity creates a so-called dark matter that we cannot see or feel. In addition to the dark matter in the Universe there is also and dark energy. She represented a force which we cannot detect directly. However, we know that due to dark energy the universe is expanding, and expanding with acceleration.

A Brief digression into the specifics of the structure of the Universe is over, so turn the actual most important information. New calculations show that we can be wrong about the speed issue, which accelerates the process of expansion of the Universe. A team of scientists from the American Agency NASA and the European space Agency (ESA) has published a new data of measurements of the Hubble constant – the rate that indicates the rate of expansion of the Universe. More accurate data are more recently derived, but using other tools, however, contradict those obtained by observation of the most distant frontiers of the observable Universe. As you can imagine, this situation creates for scientists more headache in choosing the right way of determining facts about our Universe.

Scientists for quite some time trying to accurately measure the Hubble constant and the speed with which the universe is expanding. A new round of research and observations originates from the 1950's. At that time, scientists estimate that its value lies somewhere between 50 and 100 kilometers per second per megaparsec of space. In other words, the galaxy located at 3.3 million light-years from us are moving away from us at the speed of 50-100 miles per second.

Last year, two studies were undertaken of the Hubble constant. One study was conducted with the help of space Observatory "Planck" the European space Agency. In addition, in this paper we used the telescopes of the Keck Observatory, the Very Large Telescope of the European southern Observatory, telescope "Subaru" telescope "Gemini" telescope name Victor Blanco telescope Canada-France-Hawaii, and the space telescope "Spitzer" and in some cases several others. Scientists have tried to figure out the value of the Hubble constant by observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (the echo of the Big Bang).

The Second study was conducted with the help of a space telescope "Hubble". It monitored more closely spaced (i.e. younger) to us stars and supernova. The result of both studies revealed that the indicators values of the Hubble constant vary. For physicists who discovered it, the discovery was a real revelation, because the difference in performance may say that the understanding of one of the fundamental properties of the cosmos, there is a significant error.

To test the results was conducted the third independent study. The work was conducted by a team of astronomers from the collaboration H0LiCOW with other equipment. The study showed that the data obtained using the Hubble space telescope are correct. Scientists made measurements of the Hubble constant with observations of the effect of gravitational lensing. They watched as gravity makes light of distant galaxies to bend around the quasars — vivid, high-energy objects in the centers of galaxies located in front of the observed objects. The brightness of quasars varies over time, so scientists can see different copies of the same object, but with different flicker effect. The delay between these effects help astronomers to subtract the distance you need to go light. Due to this, in the end, you can deduct the value of the Hubble constant.

Astronomers group H0LiCOW it was found that the value of the Hubble constant is 71,9±2.7 kilometers per second per megaparsec. A year earlier, the team worked with the space telescope "Hubble", set this value in 73,24±1.74 kilometers per second per megaparsec. The data, which were obtained with the help of space Observatory "Planck", accepted for the most accurate measurement of the Hubble constant, indicate a value of 66,93±0.62 kilometers per second per megaparsec.

Which we can conclude? Despite the fact that the value of the Hubble constant obtained by the space Observatory "Planck", the best suited to our understanding of outer space, it differs significantly from the values obtained by other groups of astronomers who have studied the question "from another angle", and indicates considerable disagreement with to the currently accepted theoretical model of the Universe. Measurement of the rate of expansion of the Universe can now be carried out in very different ways and with very high accuracy, but cause inconsistencies between them, quite possibly, pointing thus to new physics beyond our current knowledge of space.

As to the importance of measurement of the speed of expansion of the Universe, it is obvious. This factor may help scientists to prove or disprove the correctness of our ideas about the Universe as a whole: whether it consists of dark matter and dark energy, and ordinary matter, or the essential principle is something different.

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