Robots vs insects: why tiny drones are inferior to bees?

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2017-02-13 10:30:07

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Robots vs insects: why tiny drones are inferior to bees?

Perhaps the last item on the list of things that can forever change thanks to the drones, will not be delivery of goods or the provision of Internet coverage, but a very valuable service... pollination. Scientists from Japan are studying the possibility of using miniature drones, covered with sticky hairs that could act as robotic bees and to fight the decline of natural pollination.

In the Japanese magazine "Who" published an article in which a group of scientists demonstrated the capabilities of its drone by the example of the open flower bamboo Lily (Lilium japonicum). With a little practice, the device was able to pick up 41% of the available pollen for three times and successfully pollinate 53 of 100 flowers. The drone uses a piece of the hair, supplemented with a non-toxic gel ionic liquid that uses static electricity and stickiness to pick up the pollen. Although the study drones operated manually, the scientists say, adding artificial intelligence and GPS, you can teach a drone to act and to pollinate the plants yourself.

But to be a good pollinator, needs a bit more than just sticky hair. Experts who study insects-pollinators, argue that these drones are still too far behind the natural pollinators, including bees, butterflies and larger animals, in all their diversity. However, always nice to see that science learns from nature. These studies also help us to appreciate the wonders that nature shows us.

Pollination is a complex task that should not be underestimated. It involves finding flowers and making decisions about their suitability, and possible re-pollination. Then the pollinator must successfully process the flower to collect pollen and transfer it to another plant, with experience in contacting with the team and optimizing the route between the colors. In all these tasks, our existing pollinators unmatched, and their skills honed by millions of years of evolution. In some cases, we have the right technologies in simulation; some do not.

Three key factors that make the insect pollinators like bees is good in their case, lies in the fact that they can make independent decisions, to learn and to work in a team. Each bee can decide what flowers are right for her, to control the distribution of energy and to keep yourself clean from stale pollen.

Modern drones can already achieve this level of individual control. Because they have the technology to track individuals, they can track and flowers. Also they could build the route according to GPS and return to base for recharging or low battery. Ultimately, they can have advantages over natural pollinators as pollination is their only task. Bees, on the other hand, should look for meals for themselves and their offspring, and pollination is born as a by-product.

Areas where drones need to be tightened, it is training and teamwork. Flowers do not always open and easy as lilies, bamboo, and some of our commercial pollinated food resources have complex flowers (e.g., beans) or the need for repeat visits (for example, flowers, strawberries), to produce good fruit.

To solve these issues, bees learn and spetsializiruyutsya on certain colors to process them quickly and efficiently. They are also very hardworking and make routes. To repeat this, drones will need strong programming and or modifying the behavior or shape depending on the flower or many different drones that perform different work.

The Presence of several drones requires cooperation and decentralization of management, while individual drones unable to make decisions based on information from their colleagues and a series of simple rules. Bumblebees can determine if the flower have already been visited, the smell of traces of the previous visitor. Such adaptation makes the pollination process is extremely effective. You will need to develop similar skills team pollinating drones, so they could also work as effective pollinators.

Maybe these drones will be useful in environments that are not suitable for natural pollinators, for example, in the lab where you cross different types of plants. Or anywhere under the dome of Mars, where a swarm of bees will not be the safest decision. Let's see what else the robotics will be able to borrow from insects and plants, and what to improve.

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